- The people of a country are its real wealth, they make resources & decide policies.
- World’s population at beginning of 21st century was over 6 billion.
- “Asia has many place where people are few and few place where people are very many”~ George B. Cressey
- Population Distribution refers to the way people are spread over earth’s surface.
- The 10 most populous countries of the world contribute about 60% of world’s population
DENSITY OF POPULATION
- Each unit of land has limited capacity to support people living on it.
- Density of population= 𝑃𝑂𝑃𝑈𝐿𝐴𝑇𝐼𝑂𝑁/𝐴𝑅𝐸𝐴 per sq. km
- Densely populated parts of world: more than 200 persons per sq km Examples- N-E part of USA, N-W part of Europe, South Asia.
- Medium densed parts: 11-50 persons per sq.km Examples – Western China, Southern India, Norway.
- Low densed parts: 1 person per sq.km Examples- N & S poles, Hot & cold deserts.
FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
- Places of religious significance attract people.
- People move away from areas of socio-political unrest.
- Population growth :- change in number of inhabitants of a territory during a specific period of time.
- Important indicator of eco. Development , social upliftment of a region.
- Can be either positive or negative.
BASIC CONCEPTS OF GEOGRAPHY
1. Growth of population: Change of population in an area between two point of time
2. Growth rate of population: Population change expressed in %
3. Natural Growth of population: population growth caused by births
- Natural Growth= Births-Deaths
- Actual Growth= Births-Deaths+ In migration- Out migration.
4. Positive Growth- Birth rate is more than death rate
5. Negative Growth- Death rate is more than birth rate
COMPONENTS OF POPULATION CHANGE
- Births, Deaths & Migration are components of population change.
- Crude birth rate= Live births during a year /Mid-year population ×1000
- Crude death rate= Number of deaths /Mid year population ×1000
- Population growth occurs by decreasing death rate.
- Crude death rate is used to measure mortality of any area.
- Mortality rate is affected by region’s demographic structure, socio-economic development.
- Spontaneous effort to achieve a better balance between pop.& resources.
- Can be permanent, temporary, seasonal.
- Immigration:-Migrants who move into a new place are immigrants (from a country)
- Emigration:- Migrants who move out of a place (to a country)
- Push and pull factors influence migration.
TRENDS IN POPULATION GROWTH
- Population on earth is more than 6 billion
- In early periods population grew slowly, during last hundred years pop Increased at alarming rate.
- Expanding world trade in 16th & 17th century set stage for rapid growth
- World population exploded after industrial revolution.
- Technological advancement achieved so far helped in reduction of birth rate and provided a stage for accelerated population growth.
SCIENCE & TECH HELPED IN POPULATION GROWTH
- Agricultural production increased by steam engine which provided mechanised energy.
- Immunization (Inoculation) against epidemics & other diseases , improvement in medical & sanitation facilities.
DOUBLING TIME OF WORLD POPULATION
- It took more than a million years to attain 1 billion mark.
- It took only 12 years for it to rise from 5 billion to 6 billion.
- Developed countries take more time to double population.
- Developing countries take less time to double population.
SPATIAL PATTERN OF POPULATION CHANGE
- In developed countries there is negative correlation between economic development & population growth.
- Annual rate of population change seem to be low but not in actual:
- Small annual rate applied to very large population, it will lead to large population change.
- If growth rate continue to decline, total population grows each year The IMR may have increased as has the death rate during childbirth
IMPACT OF POPULATION CHANGE
- Small increase is desirable for economy.
- Pop. Growth beyond certain level leads to depletion of resources.
- HIV/AIDS pushed death rate in Africa & reduced avg. life expectancy which slowed population growth.
- Annual Population growth rate in India is 1.64%
- This theory is used to describe & predict future population.
- Says that pop. Of any region changes from high births and high deaths to low births and low deaths as society progresses from rural agrarian & illiterate to urban industrial & literate society
- First stage: High fertility & high mortality.
2. Second stage: Decline in fertility, reduced mortality rate , improvement in health & sanitation
3. Third stage: Fertility & mortality declined , population grows slowly , population become urbanized & literate
POPULATION CONTROL MEASURES
- Family planning is preventing birth of children.
- Access to Family Planning services is important in limiting population growth also women’s health.
- Free Availability of contraceptives, tax disincentives for large families.
Malthus stated that no. of people would increase faster than food supply any further increase would lead to famines, diseases & war.