Economic activities revolve around obtaining & utilizing
resources necessary for survival.
Secondary activities add value by transforming raw
materials into valuable products.
Secondary activities, are concerned with
manufacturing, processing & construction industries
Involves a full array of production from handicrafts to iron
and steel & assembling of delicate computer
Characteristics of manufacturing are application of
power, mass production of identical products &
specialized labour for production of commodities.
It can be done with primitive means or by advanced
Emphasis is given to industrial activity which involves less
complicated systems of production
CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN MFG.
SPECIALISATION OF SKILLS:
▪ One task is done repeatedly that gives specialization
▪ Involves high cost of manufacturing
▪ Mass production involves production of large quantity of
parts by each worker performing one task repeatedly.
▪ Industries use automated processes for mfg. without
▪ Latest technology is used in industries for production
▪ Innovation is done to ensure quality , eliminate waste ,
fight pollution & bring efficiency.
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE & STRATIFICATION
▪ Complex machine technology
▪ Extreme specialization
▪ Division of labour
UNEVEN GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION:
▪ Industries are concentrated in regions that are rich in
mineral & other resources.
▪ These areas have become the major centres of
economic & political power.
FACTORS AFFECTING INDUS. LOCATION
Access to market
Access to raw material
Access to labour supply
Access to sources of energy
Access to transportation & communication facilities
Access to Agglomeration economies
*Manufacturing-Process which transforms raw materials into finished goods of higher value *Industry- Geographically located manufacturing unit maintaining books of records under a management system *Manufacturing industry-An industry in which goods are manufactured
- Can be located anywhere
- Not dependent on any raw material
- Produce in small quantities also emply small labour force
- Non-polluting industries
CLASSIFICATION OF MFG. INDUSTRIES
▪ Amount of capital invested, number of workers
employed & volume of production determine the size of
▪ On the basis of size Industries are:
- Small scale
- Large scale
1. HOUSEHOLD INDUSTRIES
Smallest manufacturing unit.
Artisans use local raw materials & simple tools to
produce everyday goods in homes with the help of
family members or part time labour.
Finished products may be for consumption in same
household or for sale in local market.
These industries have low commercial significance, tools
are devised locally.
Products:- Foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers, leather
articles , bamboo crafts etc.
SMALL SCALE MFG.
Different from household industries by production
techniques & place of manufacture .
SSI uses local raw material , simple power driven
machines & semi skilled labour
Provides employment & raises local purchasing .
India , China , Brazil etc. have developed labour
intensive small scale manufacturing to provide
employment to the population.
LARGE SCALE MFG.
Involves large market, various raw materials, enormous
energy , specialised workers, advanced technology &
Developed in UK, N-eastern USA & Europe , spread to
World’s major industrial regions divided into :-
- Traditional large scale industrial regions, thickly
clustered in a few more developed countries.
- High technology large scale industrial regions, which
have diffused to less developed countries
INDUSTRIES BASED ON INPUTS
AGRO BASED INDUSTRIES:
▪ Raw material is derived from agriculture.
▪ Involves processing of raw materials from farms into
finished products for rural & urban markets.
▪ Examples:- Food processing, sugar, pickles, spices & fruit juices.
It is a commercial farming on industrial scale , financed
by business whose interests lie outside the agriculture.
Farms are highly mechanized, large in size, chemical
Also described as agro factories.
Example:- Corporations in tea plantations
MINERAL BASED INDUSTRY
▪ Use minerals as raw materials either ferrous or nonferrous metallic minerals.
▪ Iron & steel industry use ferrous metallic minerals
▪ Aluminum, copper industries use non- ferrous metallic
▪ Cement & pottery industries use non-metallic minerals
CHEMICAL BASED INDUSTRY
▪ Use natural chemical minerals like mineral oil.
▪ Sulphur, potash industries also use natural minerals.
▪ These industries are based on raw materials obtained
from coal & wood.
▪ Synthetic fibre & plastic are other examples of chemical
FOREST BASED RAW MATERIAL USING INDUSTRIES
▪ Forest provide products which are used as raw materials.
▪ Timber for furniture industry, grass for paper industries
comes from forest
ANIMAL BASED INDUSTRIES
▪ These industries use raw materials obtained from animals
▪ Wool for woolen textiles, ivory is obtained from animals
INDUSTRIES BASED ON OUTPUT
▪ Divided into basic industries & consumer goods industry
▪ Basic industry:- whose finished products are used by
other industries as raw materials.
▪ Consumer goods Industry:- produces goods which are
directly consumed by consumers.
▪ Consumer goods industry are also known as non-basic
INDUSTRIES BASED ON OWNERSHIP
PUBLIC SECTOR INDUSTRIES:
▪ Owned & managed by govt.
▪ Socialist countries have many state owned industries.
▪ In India BHEL, ONGC & NTPC are examples.
PRIVATE SECTOR INDUSTRIES:
▪ Owned by private individuals & managed by pvt.
▪ In capitalist countries there are many private owned industries
▪ In India Reliance, Wipro, Infosys are examples
JOINT SECTOR INDUSTRIES:
▪ Managed & owned by both private & public sector
▪ In India Indian Synthetic Rubber Limited & Aavantika
Gas Limited are examples
▪ Managed & owned by the owners of raw materials
▪ AMUL in India is the best example
TRADITIONAL LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
Based on heavy industry, located near coal fields engaged in metal smelting, chemical ,manufacture.
Their features are high employment, high density of housing but poor services & pollution.
Due to such problems many industries are closed leading to unemployment , emigration.
These industries are also known as smokestack industries as they emit a lot of smoke & pollute environment.
THE RUHR- COAL FIELD
It was a major industrial region due to coal & iron ore deposits
The industry started shrinking with the decline in the demand of coal, iron ore exhausted & pollution increased .
This region is responsible for 80% of Germany’s total steel production.
Now a new Ruhr landscape has emerged which focuses
on opel car assembly plant, chemical plant & shopping centres
HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY
High tech is the latest generation of industries.
Advanced goods are produced due to intensive Research &
Professional white collar workers make up a large share of workforce
High tech industries are neatly spaced , modern and dispersed
Robotics, computer aided design & electronics are examples of high
High tech industries that are regionally concentrated , self sustained &
highly specialized are known as Technopolis
San Francisco in USA & Bengaluru in India are Tech
IRON & STEEL INDUSTRY
It is known a basic industry & heavy industry .
These are located near sources of raw materials.
Large integrated steel industry is traditionally located
close to source of raw material or at places where these
could be brought easily.
Mini mills are gaining importance as they make steel
from scrap metal which is in abundance.
Spread in both developed & developing countries like
USA , Germany & India
Rust bowl of USA: Pittsburg
COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY
This industry has three sub sectors
▪ This is labour intensive employs semi-skilled workers
involves spinning, weaving & finishing of fabrics.
▪ Less labour intensive, use of machines & production is
3. Mill sector
▪ Mill sector is highly capital intensive, require good quality
raw cotton & produce in bulk
Cotton textile manufacturing requires good quality
cotton as raw material.
India, China, USA ,Pakistan, Uzbekistan & Egypt produces
more than half of world’s raw cotton.
The industry faces a stiff competition from synthetic fibers
Now shifting to developing countries where labour costs