1. Human activities which generate income are called economic activities.
  2. Primary activities are directly dependent on environment as these refer to utilization of earth’s resources.
  3. People engaged in primary activities are called red collar workers due to outdoor nature of their work.
  4. Primitive human beings were depended on environment for their living by hunting and gathering.
  5. Hunting and gathering are the oldest economic activity known


1. Involves primitive societies ,extract plants and animals to meet their needs.

2. Require small capital investment and low technology. uYield per person is low and no surplus is produced

3. Gatherers collect valuable plants like medicinal plants

4. Gathering has little chance of becoming important at global level :

  • Products cannot compete in the world market.
  • Synthetic products offer better quality at low prices.

*Areas- Amazon basin, Northern Canada


1.Pastoralism is domestication of animals

2. It is practiced either at subsistence or at commercial level.

3. It is of two types:

  • Nomadic herding
  • Commercial livestock rearing


1.It is primitive subsistence activity

2. Herders rely on animals for food, clothing &  shelter.

3. Each nomadic community occupies well defined territory .

4. Different animals in different regions for nomadic herding:

  • Tropical Africa:- Cattles
  • Sahara & Asiatic deserts :- sheep, camels
  • Tibet:- Yaks
  • Arctic subarctic:- Reindeer

5. Transhumance is the feature of nomadic herding

6. Number of pastoral nomads decreasing due to:-

  • Imposition of political boundaries
  • New settlement plans by different countries.

*Areas- Islands of Madagascar , S-W Africa


  1. CLR  is more organized & capital intensive.
  2. It is associated with western cultures, practiced on permanent ranches .
  3. Ranches are divided into parcels, which are fenced to regulate grazing.
  4. Only one type of animal is reared.
  5. Organized on scientific basis, emphasis is on breeding, genetic improvement, disease control& health of animals.

Areas- USA, Australia


  1. Agriculture is the planning of growing crops & rearing animals
  2. Agricultural  systems:
  • Subsistence agriculture
  • Plantation agriculture
  • Extensive commercial grain cultivation
  • Mixed farming
  • Dairy farming
  • Mediterranean agriculture
  • Market gardening &horticulture
  • Co-operative farming
  • Collective farming
Categories of Subsistence Agriculture


  1. Vegetation is cleared by fire ,ashes adds fertility to the soil  also known as slash &  burn agriculture or shifting cultivation
  2. Cultivated patches are small, and primitive tools like hoes and sticks are used.
  3. Problem is the cycle of jhum becomes less and less fertile due to loss of fertility
  4. Known as jhumming in north eastern states of India
  5. Known as milpa in central America & Mexico
  6. Known as ladang in Indonesia & Malaysia.

*Areas- Africa , S-E Asia


  • Found in densely populated regions of monsoon Asia.
  • Divided into two types:

1.Dominated by wet paddy cultivation:

  • Rice dominant, small land holdings, labour intensive
  • Yield per unit area is high but per labour productivity is low.

2. Dominated by crops other than rice:

  • Rice cant be grown due to differences in physical features
  • Soyabean, barley, sorghum are grown
  • Irrigation is used in this.

*Areas- N-Korea, N-Japan


1.Introduced by Europeans in their former colonies in tropics.

2.This agriculture is profit oriented have large scale production systems.


  • Large plantations, large cap. Investment
  • Use of mechanized means of farming
  • Single crop specialization
  • Cheap labour & scientific method for cultivation
  • Good transport system

*Areas- Brazil, India



  1. Practised in interior parts of semi-arid lands of mid- latitudes
  2. Wheat, corn, barley, oats ,rye  are grown.
  3. Large fam size, highly mechanized, less labour intensive
  4. Yield per person is high as only few no. of people are engaged.
  5. Total yield high due to large farm size.

*Areas- Prairies of America , Pampas of Argentina


  1. Done in highly developed parts of world
  2. Farms are of moderate size
  3. Wheat, barley ,oats , maize are grown.
  4. Fodder crops are important component.
  5. Equal emphasis is on cultivation & animal husbandry.
  6. Crop rotation & intercropping help in maintaining soil fertility.
  7. Characteristics:
  • High cap. Expenditure on farm machinery & building
  • Extensive use of chemical fertilisers & manures
  • Farmers are skilled & expertise in farm activities

*Areas – N-W Europe, Parts of Eurasia


  1. Most advanced & efficient type of rearing of milch animals
  2. Highly cap. Intensive & labour intensive.
  3. Animals sheds , feeding & milching machines add to the cost of this farming.
  4. It has an edge over crop cultivation as there is no off season.
  5. Emphasis on cattle breeding, health care, & veterinary services
  6. Practised near urban & industrial areas
  7. Development in transport, refrigeration, pasteurization have increased durability of these perishable goods.

*Areas- Canada, N-W Europe


  1. Highly specialized commercial agriculture.
  2. Practised on either side of Mediterranean sea in Europe , north Africa & south western parts of Australia.
  3. Viticulture is specialty of Mediterranean region
  4. Best quality of wines are produced here
  5. Inferior grapes are dried to make raisins & currants.
  6. This region also produces olive, figs & citrus fruits.
  7. It is advantageous as more valuable crops are grown in winters when there is great demand in north American markets

*Areas- S-California, Tunisia


  1. Specialise in cultivation of high value crops like vegetables, fruits, flowers for urban markets
  2. Farms are small, located where there is good transport link with urban centres.
  3. Emphasis on HYV seeds, fertilisers, insecticides, greenhouses.
  4. Well developed in densely populated districts of N-W Europe, USA
  5. Netherlands specialize in growing flowers.
  6. Truck farming:- regions where farmers specialize in vegetables only , the farming is known as truck farming.


  1. It is a modern development in industrial regions of western Europe & North America
  2. Livestock , poultry & cattle rearing is done in stalls & pens (nclosure housing one or a few animals)
  3. Livestock is carefully supervised against diseases.
  4. Require heavy capital expenditure, building , machinery & veterinary services
  5. Breed selection & scientific breeding is an important feature.


  1. Group of farmers from co-operative societies pool their resources for more efficient & profitable farming.
  2. Helps farmers to procure all important farming inputs, sell products at the most favourable prices & process quality products at cheap rates.
  3. Most successful in Denmark, every farmer is member of co-operative


  1. Principle is based on social ownership of means of production , collective labour.
  2. Collective farming is kolkhoz model introduced in soviet union to improve efficiency of farming methods
  3. Farmers pool in all their resources, are allowed to retain small plots to grow crops in order to meet daily needs.
  4. Govt. sets yearly targets, farm produce is sold to state at fixed prices
  5. Surplus was distributed or sold in the market.
  6. Farmers had to pay taxes on farm produces, hired machinery.


  • Activity of taking out ores & minerals from the layers of the earth
  • Development of mining began with industrial revolution
  • Factors affecting mining are:
  1. Physical factors:- size, grade, mode of occurrence of deposits
  2. Economic factors:- demand for mineral, technology, capital, labour

On the basis of mode of occurrence & nature of ore mining is of two types


  • Also known as open cast mining
  • Cheapest way of extracting minerals
  • Cost of safety & precaution equipment is low in this method
  • Output is both large & rapid (can be extracted quickly)


  • Used to obtain ore which lies deep below the earth’s surface.
  • Vertical shafts are sunk from where underground galleries radiate to reach minerals.
  • Minerals are extracted & transported to the surface by these passages .
  • Requires specially designed lifts, drills, haulage vehicles for safety & efficient movement.
  • This method is risky, often causes to death to life.
  • Developed economies do not practice mining. Developing countries are more engaged in mining activities due to large population

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