India has the 2nd largest population after china.
Large population put pressure on limited resources.
India’s population (Census 2011) is 1210 million.
Population Census is done after every 10 years .
First census was started in 1872.
First complete census conducted in 1881
Population distribution is the way people are spaced
over earth surface.
India has uneven population distribution.
Factors for uneven population distribution:-
- Physical factors
- Socio-economic & historical factors
Expressed as number of people/ unit area.
Density of population (2011 census) is 382 person/sq.km
Variation in population density:
• Lowest density of 17 person/sq.km in Arunachal Pradesh.
• Highest density of 11,297 person/sq .km in Delhi
• Bihar, UP , West Bengal in north & Kerala & Tamil Nadu in
south have high densities.
• Assam, Gujarat , Jharkhand have moderate densities.
• N-E states of India & hill states have low densities
• UT’s have high density of population except for A & N islands
DENSITY – A BETTER MEASURE?
Density of population is a crude measure of human land
For a country like India physiological , agricultural
densities are important.
Physiological density:- total population/net cultivated
Agricultural density:- total agricultural population/ net
Agricultural population= cultivators, agricultural labourers
& family members
GROWTH OF POPULATION
It is the change in number of people living in a particular
area between 2 points of time.
It has two components natural & induced
Annual growth rate of Indian population (census 2011) is 1.64%
Population doubling time:- Time taken by population to
double itself at current annual growth rate
PHASES OF POP. GROWTH IN INDIA
Phase 1 (Period of stagnation or Stationary phase of growth)
• Period from 1901-1921
• High birth rate & death rate lead to low rate of increase.
• Poor health services, inefficient distribution of food, illiteracy
was responsible for stationary growth.
Phase 2 (Period of steady population growth)
• Period from 1921-1951
• Improvement in health & sanitation brought mortality rate
down, birth rate was high lead to steady population growth.
• Better transport communication system improved distribution
Phase 3 (Period of population explosion )
• Period from 1951-1981
• Population exploded because of fall in mortality rate and high fertility rate.
• Living conditions were improved because of developmental activities.
• International migration increased the population.
• Period from 1981 till date
• Growth rate remained high, with slow down of population.
• Downward trend in birth rate
• Increase in mean age for marriage, improved life quality, females
education lead to slow down of population.
REGIONAL VAR. IN POP. GROWTH
India has regional variation in population growth
Kerala has lowest growth rate followed by Karnataka.
North, North-West, Central India have high pop. growth
Kerala has the lowest growth rate of population among all
Age groups of Indian population:
- 0-15 = Children
- 15-29 = Youth
- 15-59 = Working population
- 60+ = Aged population
Growth of Adolescents is important aspect of population growth.
Share of adolescents in population is 20.9%( 52.7% are males & 47.3% are females)
Youthful population have high potentials, but vulnerable if not guided properly.
Challenges for society regarding Adolescents:
• Lower age at marriage
• Low intake of nutrients
• HIV/AIDS infections
• Drug abuse, juvenile crimes
GOVT’S INITIATIVES FOR ADOLESCENTS
National Youth Policy (2014)
• Proposes holistic vision for Indian youth.
• Aims to empower youth to achieve their potentials and make India
better & developed.
• NYP has defined youth in age group 15-29.
• Launched to impart proper education to adolescents.
National Policy for Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (2015)
• Provide umbrella frame work to all skilling activities carried out in
• Aims to link skills with demand centres.
Rural – Urban composition:
• Population composition on place of residence is
indicator of socio-economic characteristics.
• 69% of population lives in rural areas, 31% in urban areas.
• Bihar & Sikkim have very high % of rural population.
• UT’s have small proportion of rural population except
Dadra & Nagar haveli
• States like Maharashtra & Goa have very high urban
• Increase in urban population is the indicator of
India is the land of linguistic diversity of population.
At present there are 22 scheduled languages.
Hindi have the highest % of speakers.
Sanskrit & Manipuri have the lowest % of speakers
• It affects cultural and political life of Indians.
• Some states & districts have large strength of one religion, some
have negligible strength of one religion.
• Hindus, the largest religious majority is 80% of total population.
• Muslims, the largest religious minority is 14% of total population.
• Christians are found in rural areas majority of them are in Goa & Kerala
• Sikhs in Punjab & Haryana.
• Jains & Buddhists are the smallest religious groups of India.
• Jains:- Rajasthan, Gujarat & Maharashtra.
• Buddhists:- Maharashtra , Himachal Pradesh & Sikkim
RELIGION & LANDCAPES
Religious expression on landscape is manifested through
sacred structures, plants & animals, groves of trees.
Sacred structures like Temples , Masjids , Gurudwaras &
churches are widely spread.
Plants like Holy Basil is considered sacred in Hindu culture
• On the basis of economic status population is divided
into main workers, marginal workers,& non workers.
• Main workers & Marginal workers (40%) , Non-workers
• Work participation rate is high in areas of low economic
- Agricultural labourers
- Household industrial workers
- Other workers
SECTORAL COMPOSITION (Population in different sectors %)
- Primary- 54.6%
- Secondary -3.8%
Males outnumber female in all three sectors
Women’s participation rate have increased in
secondary & tertiary sectors.
Agriculture sector workers have declined from 58.2% in
2001 to 54.6% in 2011.
Participation rate in secondary & tertiary sectors have
Large cultivators:- Himachal Pradesh & Nagaland
Large agricultural labourers:- West Bengal, MP & Bihar
Highly urbanized areas:- Delhi, Chandigarh, Puducherry
BETI BACHAO BETI PADHAO CAMPAIGN
Launched in 2014, promotes gender sensitivity& acknowledge adverse impacts of gender discrimination.
Government of India has introduced the Beti Bachao, Beti
Padhao (BBBP) scheme for survival, protection & education of the girl child.
Divison of society is believed to be biological & natural ,it become basis of social differences.
Exclusion of half of the population hinders growth of society.
UNDP acknowledged that “If development is not engendered it is endangered”
Aims to address the issue of declining Child Sex Ratio