Population composition refers to those characteristics of population which are measurable and helpful in distinguishing one group of people from other
- People can be distinguished by:- 1.Age 2.Sex 3.Place of residence 4.Occupation 5.Education 6.Life expectancy
- The ratio between number of men and women in the population is called sex ratio.
- Sex ratio where males are less than females: Male population/Female population×1000
- Sex ratio where females are less than males: Female population/Male population×1000
- Sex ratio tells us about status of women in a country.
- Females tend to be more resilient than males but this biological advantage is cancelled by social discrimination they face.
SEX RATIO IN THE WORLD
- Avg world sex ratio is 102 males per hundred females.
- Highest sex ratio in Latvia- 85 males per 100 females.
- Lowest sex ratio in Qatar- 311 males per 100 females.
- Sex ratio favorable for females in 139 countries & unfavorable in 72 countries (Listed by UN).
- Asia has low sex ratio. Europe has high sex ratio
AGE SEX PYRAMID
- A pyramid used to show number of females & males in different age groups( Age structure)
- Shape of pyramid reflects the characteristics of population.
- Left side shows % of males.
- Right side shows % of females
- Triangular shaped pyramid with wide base.
- It is of less developed countries.
- High birth rate leads to large population in lower age groups.
- Example: Nigeria, Bangladesh, Mexico
- Pyramid to show birth and death rate almost equal.
- Bell shaped pyramid tapered towards top.
- Pyramid depicts low births & low death rates.
- Used to depict population growth in developed countries.
- Population growth is usually 0 or negative.
- Pyramid has narrow base and tapered top leaf shaped.
- Example: Japan
RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION (RUC)
- Division of population into rural and urban on the basis of residence is called RUC.
- Rural areas :- people are engaged in primary activities.
- Urban areas:-people are engaged in non- primary activities.
Process by which the share of older population becomes larger , mostly happen in developed countries
RURAL URBAN SEX COMPOSITION (RUSC)
- Refers to composition of males and females in rural & urban areas .
- Shows rural urban difference in sex ratio.
- RUSC in Canada and west European countries opposite of those in Asian-African countries.
- Farming in developed countries is highly mechanized and a male dominant activity.
- Sex ratio in Asian urban areas is male dominated due to male migration.
- In India participation of women is high in farming activity.
- Denotes population above 7 years of age who is able to read & write and are able to do basic arithmetic calculation with understanding.
- Literate population is an indicator of its socio-economic development.
- It reveals standard of living, social status of female, availability of educational facilities & govt. policies
- Refers to distribution of working population across primary, secondary, tertiary & quaternary sector of the country.
- Proportion of working population engaged in these sectors is a good indicator of the economic development level.
- Economy which is in primitive stages have people engaged in primary activities.
- Developed economies have people engaged in secondary & tertiary activities