 Planning involve process of thinking ,formulation of a
scheme & implementation of set of actions to achieve some goal
 Two approaches to planning:-

  1. Sectoral Planning: Formulation implementation of set of
    schemes aimed at development of various sectors of
    economy like agriculture, manufacturing, service etc.
  2. Regional Planning: Done to reduce regional imbalances
    in development , some areas lag behind than others


 On January 1 2015, Planning Commission was renamed as NITI AYOG  Objective- involve states in economic policy, provide  NITI stands for ‘National Institution for Transforming India’
 NITI AYOG was formed by renaming of Planning Commission of India Provides advice to govt.


 Focus of this planning is in promoting economically backward areas
 Planning Commission introduced ‘Target area’ & ‘Target group’
approaches to curb regional & social disparities which were growing in economy
 For economic development there is a need of resource base as well as
technology & investment
 Target Area Programmes: Command Area Development programme(CAD), Drought Prone Area Development Programme (DPADP), Hill Area Development Programme(HADP)
 Target Group Programmes:- The Small Farmers Development Agency(
SFDA) & Marginal Farmers Development Agency (MFDA)
 In eighth five year plan special area programmes were developed for
tribal areas, N-E states & backward areas


 Initiated during 5th five year plan covering 15 districts of hilly areas like Uttarakhand, Darjeeling,Nilgiri
 National Commission on backward area development
recommended “all hill areas above 600 m & not covered under tribal sub plan to be treated as backward hill area”
 Hill development plans aimed at harnessing indigenous
resources of hill through horticulture development,
animal husbandry, plantation etc.
 Plans were based on topographical, ecological ,
economic & social conditions of the hill areas


 Initiated during 4th five year plan
 Mainly emphasized on generating employment opportunities to
the people of drought prone areas along with creating productive assets
 Irrigation projects , land development programmes & creation of rural infrastructure were also its priorities.
 This programme confined to development of agriculture & allied
sectors along with restoration of ecological balance caused by growing population
 Adoption of integrated watershed development approach was another strategy


 67 districts in India has been identified as drought prone
regions by planning commission in 1967
 Irrigation Commission in 1972 introduced 30 % criterion of
irrigated area acc. to which drought prone areas are
those which depend 70% on monsoon & 30% on
 Drought prone areas: Rajasthan, Gujarat, West MP etc.
 Due to better irrigation facilities drought prone areas of
Punjab & Haryana have become protected regions


 Bharmaur tribal area comprise Bharmaur & Holi tehsils of Chamba district, Himachal Pradesh
 Notified tribal area since 1975
 Inhabited by Gaddis
 Bharmaur Tribal Region ha harsh climatic conditions low resource base , fragile environment
 One of the most socially-economically backward area of Himachal Pradesh
 Economy is based on agriculture & allied activities
 Under 5th five year plan , tribal sub plan introduced in 1974 &
Bharmaur designated as integrated tribal development project  Also aimed at narrowing development gap between Bharmaur & other areas of Himachal Pradesh
 Highest priority on development of transport & communication, agriculture
 Significant contribution of tribal sub plan is development
of schools, healthcare facilities, communication & electricity
 Main Beneficiaries: Holi & Khani areas
 Non- Benefitted: Tundah & Kugti


 Increase in literacy rate
 Increase in sex ratio
 Decline in child marriage
 Diff between males & females declined
 Gaddis had subsistence agriculture but now they cultivate pulses & cash crops
 Gaddis are still very mobile as most of them migrate to
Kangra & surrounding areas during winter to earn living from wage labour


 Development is a multidimensional concept & signifies
positive, irreversible transformation of society , economy & environment
 Earlier development was synonymous to economic growth measured in GNP & per capita consumption
 In 1970s ‘redistribution with growth & growth & equity’ were incorporated in the definition of development
 Notion of sustainable development was emerged in western world reflected common concern of people about undesirable effects of industrial development on environment
 ‘The Population Bomb’ by Ehrlich in 1968 & ‘Limits to growth’ by Meadows in 1972 raised level of fear among people regarding environment degradation
 Concerned with environment issues UN established ‘World Commission on Environment & development’ headed by H.Brundtland
 Brundtland Commission gave report on environment in 1987 known as ‘Our Common Future’
 Report defines sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs”


 Previously known as Rajasthan Canal , one of the largest canal system in India.
 IG Canal was the idea of Kanwar Sain in 1948
 Launched on 31 march 1958
 Canal originates at Harike Barrage in Punjab runs parallel to Pakistan border
 Planned length: 9,060 km, Total command area: 19.63 lakh hectare
 70% area irrigated by flow system & 30% by lift system

 Construction of canal in two ways:

  1. STAGE-1:Has gently undulating topography lies in Ganganagar, Hanumangarh
  2. STAGE-2 :Comprise desert lands lies in Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Churu
     In Lift system water is lifted up to make it flow against slope of land
     Lift canals originate left bank & flow canal on right bank of main canal
     Introduction of canal in Rajasthan has transformed its ecology, economy & society both +vely & -vely
     Availability of soil moisture, afforestation & pasture development programmes under CAD have resulted in greening of the land
     Intensive irrigation & excessive use of water led to emergence of waterlogging & soil salinity
     Now, wheat cotton rice etc. are grown has replaced traditional crops- gram, bajra,jowar
     Intensive irrigation led to increase in agriculture productivity also caused salinity


  1. Strict implementation of water management policy , canal project proposed protective irrigation in Stage-1 & extensive irrigation of crops in Stage-2
  2. Cropping pattern shall not include water intensive
    crops, people should be encouraged to grow citrus fruits
  3. CAD programmes like lining of water courses , land development & levelling & warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in command area) shall be implemented effectively to reduce water loss
  4. Areas affected by water-logging & soil salinity shall be reclaimed
  5. Ecological development through shelterbelt plantation ,
    & pasture development is necessary particularly in Stage- 2 areas
     Poor land owners should be provided with adequate
    economic , financial & institutional support for land
     Agriculture & allied activities need to be developed
    along with agriculture & animal husbandry

Leave a Reply

error: Content is protected !!
%d bloggers like this: