1. Geography is mother discipline of Human Geography
  2. As a field of study geography:- integrative, empirical,& practical.
  3. Physical Geography:- studies physical environment.
  4. Human Geography:- studies relationship between physical and human worlds.
  5. The core concern of geography as a discipline: understand the earth as the home of human beings & study all those elements which’ve sustained them.


  1. Approach study: Regional or systematic.
  2. As a Discipline: Nomothetic or idiographic.
  3. Subject of matter: Organized Interpretation of geog.
  4. Phenomena: Theoretically or historic institution approach

*Dichotomy between phys. & human is not a vary valid one as humans & nature are inseparable elements

Metaphors in Geography

  1. Eye of the storm.
  2. Face of the river.
  3. Snout of the glacier.
  4. Neck of isthmus.
  5. Profile of soil.
  6. Organisms:- regions villages and towns.
  7. Living organism:- state or country.
  8. Arteries of circulation:- network of road, railways, waterways


Ratzel – “Human geography is the synthetic study
of relationship between human societies and
earth’s surface” (synthesis is the keyword )

Ellen C. Semple- “Human geography is the study of “the
changing relationship between the unresting
man and the unstable earth.” (Dynamism is the keyword)

Paul Vidal de la Blache- “Conception resulting from a more synthetic knowledge of the physical laws governing our earth and of the relations between the living beings which inhabit it” (keyword- new concept of relationship between earth & human beings)


  1. Studies inter-relationship between physical environment & socio-cultural environment.
  2. Elements of physical environment:- Soil, Climate ,Water Flora & fauna .
  3. Elements of human-environment:- Houses, villages, cities.
  4. Human beings have modified physical environment which has impacted human lives.

Naturalisation of Humans & Humanisation of Nature

  1. With the help of technology humans interact with nature.
  2. Technology indicates level of cultural development of society.
  3. Understanding natural laws led human to develop technology.

Environmental Determinism

  1. Earlier humans adapted to dictates of nature.
  2. Level of technology was low.
  3. Primitive stage of human social development.
  4. Defined as the type of interaction between primitive human society and strong forces of nature.
  5. Human was naturalized & worshipped nature


  1. People begin to understand environment & forces of nature.
  2. Developed more efficient technology with socio-cultural development.
  3. Moved from a state of necessity to a state of freedom.
  4. Created possibilities with environment’s resources.
  5. Human Imprints are present everywhere.
  6. This leads to humanization of nature.


  1. Introduced by geographer Griffith Taylor, reflects middle path between environmental determinism & possibilism.
  2. Also known as stop & go determinism.
  3. Shows that neither is there situation of absolute necessity nor is of absolute freedom.
  4. Human beings can conquer nature by obeying it.
  5. The free run which developed countries attempted to take has resulted in greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, global warming, etc.



  1. Welfare or humanistic school of thought

In human geography was mainly concerned with the different aspects of social well-being of the people. These included aspects such as housing, health and education.

2. Radical school of thought

Employed Marxian theory to explain the basic cause of poverty, deprivation, and social inequality. Contemporary social problems were related to the development of capitalism.

3. Behavioural school of thought

laid great emphasis on lived experience and also on the perception of space by social categories based on ethnicity, race, and religion, etc.


  1. Human geography assumes highly inter-disciplinary nature.
  2. Develops close interface with other sister disciplines to understand and explain human elements on the earth.
  3. Fields and sub fields reflect expanding realm of human geography.

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