Movement of people from their home to another city, state or
country for a job, shelter or some other reasons is called migration.
Indians are migrating to Middle-east, W-Europe, America & Aus. for
Migration is a important factor in redistributing population.
History of India is a history of waves of migration
FIRST WAVE OF MIGRATION:-
▪ During British rule millions of indentured labourers were sent to Mauritius,
Caribbean islands from UP, Bihar and other states.
▪ These migrations were covered under time bound contract known as ‘Girmit Act’.
▪ People were treated as slaves & were put to work in plantations
SECOND WAVE OF MIGARTION:-
▪ Second wave ventured out into neighbor countries as professionals, artisans, traders etc.
▪ These workers moved to Thailand, Malyasia, Singapore in search of opportunities.
▪ In 1970s there was a steady outflow of Entrepreneurs, professionals to west countries
THIRD WAVE OF MIGRATION:-
▪ Comprised movement of professionals like Doctors, Engineers ,Financial experts.
▪ People migrated to USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand.
▪ These migrants were highly educated & were the highest earning groups.
▪ Post liberalization Education, Knowledge based Indian emigration
has made Indian diaspora the most powerful in the world.
▪ In all developed countries Indian diaspora has been playing an
important role in the development of American & European countries.
MIGRATION & CENSUS
Migrant:- A person who moves from one place to another to find
better living conditions
TYPES OF MIGRANTS
LIFE TIME MIGRANT:-
▪ A person whose place of birth is different from the place of census
▪ As per Census 2011 there are 307 million people as life time migrant.
MIGRANT BY PLACE OF LAST RESIDENCE:-
▪ A person whose place of last residence is different from place of last
▪ As per census 2011 there are 315 million people as migrant by place
of last residence
STREAMS OF MIGRATION
*Two types of migration:
• Inter state
• Intra state
Four streams in internal migration:-
MALE & FEMALE MIGARTION
Intra state migration is dominated by women, because of marriage.
Females predominate streams of short distance rural migration in
India also experiences immigration & emigration to neighbor
As per census 2001, 5 million people migrated to India from other
countries, 59.8% from Bangladesh.
▪ Bangladesh- 3million
▪ Pakistan- 0.9 million
▪ Nepal- 0.5 million
▪ 0.16 million refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka & Myanmar
20 million people of Indian diaspora are spread in 110 countries
SPATIAL VARIATION IN MIGRATION
States of Maharashtra, Delhi, Gujarat attracts migration from other states.
Maharashtra has highest in-migrants followed by Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana.
UP & Bihar has largest net out migrants among the states
Among Urban Agglomerations Greater Mumbai receives highest number of immigrants.
CAUSES OF MIGRATION
Push factors & Pull factors are the main causes
In India people migrate from R-U mainly due to poverty , lack of basic needs.
Natural disasters & local conflicts also lead to migration.
Pull factors attract people from R-U areas.
Work & employment is the main cause of male migration.
Marriage is the main cause for female migration
Marriage migration of males is only 2% , only in Meghalaya
▪ Benefits the region where people migrate from, migrants sent remittances.
▪ Punjab, Kerala,& Tamil Nadu receives great amount of remittances.
▪ Remittances help in growth of economy of source region.
▪ Remittances work as life blood for poor’s of Bihar & UP.
▪ Unregulated Migration to urban areas has caused overcrowding.
▪ Development of slums in developed states is a negative
consequence of unregulated migration within country.
▪ Migration leads to redistribution of population within the country.
▪ Age & skill selective out migration from rural areas impacts rural demographic structure.
▪ High out migration from UK, UP, Rajasthan have brought serious imbalances in age sex composition in these states.
▪ Migrants acts as agents of social change.
▪ New ideas related to technology, family planning etc. are diffused from U-R areas from them.
▪ Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures.
▪ Evolution of composite culture breaks through narrow considerations & widens up mental horizon.
▪ Anonymity creates social vacuum & sense of dejection in individuals.
▪ Overcrowding of people has put pressure on socio physical
infrastructure of urban areas.
▪ It leads to unplanned growth of urban settlement & formation of
slums in shanty colonies.
▪ Cities are facing problem of ground water depletion, air pollution ,
disposal of sewage etc.
▪ Migration excluding & including marriage migration affects
▪ In rural areas, male selective outmigration puts physical & mental
pressure on women.
▪Women migration enhances their autonomy & role in economy but
also increases vulnerability.
▪Remittances are benefit to source regions but there is loss of human
▪Industrial economies are recruiting highly trained professionals from