(c.600 BCE-600 CE)

Part I- Theme Four

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Sanchi Stupa is located in?
A. Uttar Pradesh
B. Odisha
C. Bihar
D. Madhya Pradesh

Ans: D

* Stupa – mounds regarded as sacred because relics of Buddha (bodily remains & objects) are buried

2. Who among the following had a great interest in Sanchi Stupa?
A. Daya Ram Sahni
B. D.D. Kosambi
C. Sunil Kumar
D. Alexander Cunningham

Ans: D

3. Who among the following Begums provided money for the preservation of the Sanchi stupa?
A. Shahjehan Begum
B. Nur Jahan Begum
C. Rukaiyya Begum
D. Nur-un-Nissa Begum

Ans: A

*Also, Sultan Jehan Begum , they were the rulers of Bhopal

4. Identify the incorrect statements:
A. British Sought permission Of Shahjehan Begum to take away eastern gateway of Sanchi Stupa
B. Sultan Jehan funded the museum & also guesthouse where John Marshall lived & dedicated the volumes to her
C. The mid first millennium BCE is regarded as turning point in world history, new thinkers emerged in this period
D. New thinkers tried to understand relationship between human & cosmic order

Ans: A

*French sought permission Of Shahjehan Begum to take away eastern gateway of Sanchi Stupa

*First millennium BCE = period between 1000 BC to 1 BC

5. Consider the following statements:
I. Rigveda was compiled between c. 1500 & 1000 BCE
II. Ideas in Upanishads suggest people were curious about meaning of life, afterlife & rebirth
III. Mahavira & Buddha supported authority of Vedas & emphasized individual agency
IV. Individual’s existence was thought to be determined by his/her birth in a specific caste in Buddhism
Which if these statements is/are correct?
A. I & II only
B. III only
C. II & III only
D. IV only

Ans: A

*Mahavira & Buddha questioned the authority of Vedas

6. What does Kutagrashala means─
A. A school of thought
B. A hut with a pointed roof
C. Sacrifice performed by Kings
D. Monastery’s garden

Ans: B

Teachers travelled from place to place, trying to convince one another as well as laypersons, about the validity of their philosophy or the way they understood the world. Debates took place in the kutagarashala – literally, a hut with a pointed roof – or in groves where travelling mendicants halted

7. Consider the following pairs & choose the incorrect pair
I. Zarathustra –Iran
II. Kong Zi – Japan
III. Aristotle – Greece
IV. Buddha – Thailand
A. I only
B. II & IV only
C. II only
D. III only

Ans: B

Kong Zi – China

Buddha – India

8. Elaborate sacrifices _________ & _________ were performed by chiefs & kings who depended on Brahamana priests to conduct the ritual

Ans:  Ashvamedha & Rajasuya

9. Chhandogya Upanishad is a text composed in which language-
A. Pali
B. Prakrit
C. Sanskrit
D. Tamil

Ans: C

Composed in c. Sixth century BCE

10. Given all the statements are true except –
A. Buddha taught orally through discussion & debate
B. Buddha’s speeches were written during his lifetime
C. Compilations of Buddha’s teachings are known as Tipitaka
D. Vinaya Pitaka included rules & regulations for those who joined the sangha

Ans: B

After Buddha’s death, his teachings were compiled by his disciples

*Sutta Pitaka – Buddhist teachings

*Abhidhamma Pitaka – Philosophical matters

11. Which of the following contains regional histories of Buddhism?
A. Dipavamsa
B. Mahavamsa
C. Both A and B
D. None of these

Ans: C

As Buddhism travelled to new regions such as Sri Lanka, text such as the Dipavamsa (literally, the chronicle of the island) and Mahavamsa(the great chronicle ) were written

12. Why does Fa Xian & Xuan Zang travelled from China to India?
A. In search of wealth
B. In search of Buddhist texts
C. For writing travel history
D. They were invited by Indian kings

Ans: B

13. Which one of the following aspects describes the meaning of ‘Tirthankaras’ in Jainism?
A. Supreme Being who is the incarnation of God
B. Those who guide men and women across the river of existence.
C. Those who follow the path of Vedanta asceticism
D. Those who know the ultimate truth and dharma

Ans: B

14. Consider the following statements & choose the correct option:
I. Basic philosophy of Jaina was already in existence before birth of Vardhamana.
II. Mahavira was the last Tirthankara
III. According to Jaina , cycle of birth & rebirth is shaped through karma & principle of ahimsa was emphasized
A. I & II
B. III & I
D. IV only

Ans: C

15. “Asceticism & penance are required to free oneself from the cycle of karma”. Which religion emphasized this point of view?
A. Jainism
B. Buddhism
C. Hinduism
D. Zoroastrianism

Ans: A

*Monastic existence is a necessary condition of salvation

16. ______ monks & nuns took five vows.
A. Buddhist
B. Christian
C. Jaina
D. Taoist

Ans: C

17. Uttaradhyayana Sutta belongs to which religion?
A. Buddhism
B. Jainism
C. Hinduism
D. Judaism

Ans: B

*Prakrit text related to Queen Kamalavati

18. Two statements are given in the question below as Assertion (A) and Reasoning (R). Read the statements and choose the appropriate option.
Assertion (A): The most important idea in Jainism is entire world is animated
Reason (R): Even stones , rocks & water have life , non injury to living beings is central to Jaina philosophy

A. Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A
B. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C. A is true but R is false.
D. A is false but R is true.

Ans: A

19. ________ is a biography of a saint or religious leader.
A. Saintography
B. Sant Katha
C. Theography
D. Hagiography

Ans: D

*Praise saint’s achievements

*Tell us about beliefs of the followers of that particular tradition

20. Whose message spread through Central Asia to China , Korea , Japan , Sri Lanka?
A. Mahavira
B. Kapila
C. Buddha
D. Vishnu

Ans: C

21. Gautam Buddha belonged to which clan─
A. Muni
B. Knantrika
C. Sakya
D. Ajivika

Ans: C

*He tried convince people through reason & persuasion

22. Dhamma translates to –
A.  Policy of war
B. Religion
C. Statecraft policy
D. Path of righteous living

Ans: D

23. Consider the following statements:
I. World is transient (anicca) nothing permanent in it
II. Sorrow(dukkha) is intrinsic to human existence
III. Human beings can rise above these worldly troubles by following path of moderation between severe penance & self indulgence
IV. Buddha regarded social world as divine origin
Which of the statements is/are not true?
A. II only
B. III only
C. IV only
D. I,II only

Ans: C

Buddha regarded social world as the creation of human beings , advised kings to be humane & ethical

24. Be lamps unto yourselves as all of you must work out your own liberation”, were the last words of?
A. Gautam Buddha
B. Mahavir Jain
C. Gotami putra Satkarni
D. Ashoka

Ans: A

* He emphasized individual agency & righteous action as the means to escape from cycle of rebirth

25. Consider the following statement (s):
I. Sangha was the organization of monks, the teachers of dhamma
II. The monks lived on alms and were called bhikkhus
III. Mediation of Ananda led to inclusion of women in Sangha
IV. Buddha’s followers came only from lower strata of society
Which of the above statement (s) is/are correct?
A. I &II only

Ans: D

Buddha’s followers came from many social groups- kings, wealthy men , workers , slaves etc.

26. Who was the first woman to enter Sangha─
A. Punna
B. Gargi
C. Prabhavati
D. Gotami

Ans: D

*The Buddha’s foster mother, Mahapajapati Gotami was the first woman to be ordained as a bhikkhuni

27. Two statements are given in the question below as Assertion (A) and Reasoning (R). Read the statements and choose the appropriate option.
Assertion (A): Buddhism grew rapidly both during the lifetime of Buddha & after his death
Reason (R): Buddhism appealed to many people dissatisfied with existing religious practices

A. A is true but R is false.
B. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C. Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A
D. A is false but R is true.

Ans: C

* Emphasis was on metta(fellow feeling) & karuna (compassion)

28. Fill in the blank:
The compilation of Vinaya Pitaka, the Sutta Pitaka and the Abhidhamma Pitaka are called as _____
A. Dipavamsa
B. Tipitaka
C. Mahavamsa

Ans: B

29. ________ refers to shrines.
A. Viharas
B. Chaitya
C. Harmika
D. Yashti

Ans: B

30. Consider the following pairs associated with Buddha
I. Birth – Sarnath
II. First Sermon – Lumbini
III. Enlightenment – Kushinagara
IV. Nibbana – Bodh Gaya
Which of the following is/are correct?
A. I & II only
B. III only
C. All of these
D. None

Ans: D

31. Which of the following rulers erected a pillar at Lumbini to mark his visit?
A. Siddharta
B. Ashoka
C. Chandragupta Maurya
D. Samudragupta

Ans: B

32. Ashokavadana is a ____ text
A.  Jainism
B. Sanskrit
C. Hindi
D. Buddhist

Ans: D

*According to it , Ashoka distributed portions of Buddha’s relics to every important town & ordered the construction of stupas over them.

33. Which one of the following teachings is not associated with the teachings of Mahavira or Jaina Philosophy?
 A. The entire world is animated.
B. Ahimsa (Non-Violence)
C. The cycle of birth and rebirth is not related to Karma.
D. Monastic existence is a necessary condition of salvation.

Ans: C

34. Which of the following is the oldest stupa in India and was commissioned by the Mauryan King Ashoka?
A. Shanti Stupa
B. Amaravati Stupa
C. Sanchi Stupa
D. Nagarjuna Konda Stupa

Ans: C

* By Second century BCE Stupas at Bharhut , Sanchi & Sarnath had been built

35. Choose the correct option
Statement 1: Donations were made by kings like satvahanas and guilds  for stupa building
Statement 2: Women , Bhikkhus & Bhikkhunis also contributed to stupa making
A. Statement 1 is True , State 2 is False
B. Both are correct
C. Statement 2 is True , Statement 1 is False
D. Both are False

Ans: B

36. ______ represents the abode of gods in a stupa

Ans: Harmika

37. Who said “It seems to me a suicidal & indefensible policy to allow the country to be looted of original works of ancient art”?

Ans:  H.H. Cole

38. Sanchi was discovered in the year-
A. 1989
B. 1986
C. 1818
D. 1653

Ans: C

*1989- Sanchi declared World Heritage Site

39. A story about a generous prince who gave away everything to a Brahmana & went to the forest is known as-

Ans: Vessantara Jataka

40. Which of the following pairs associated with Buddha’s symbolic representation is incorrect?
A. Empty seat – Meditation of Buddha
B. Wheel –Sermon of Buddha
C. Bodhi Tree- Birth of Buddha
D. Stupa – Mahaparinibbana

Ans: C

*Bodhi Tree – enlightenment

41. Which of the following options is the most probable explanation for the incorporation of the’ Shalabhanjika’ Motif in the Sanchi Stupa?
A. Mahaparinibbana
B. Strength & wisdom
C. Auspicious symbol
D. Religious idol

Ans: C

*Suggests that many people who turned to Buddhism enriched it with their own pre buddhist & non-buddhist beliefs & practices

* A woman whose touch caused trees to flower & bear fruit

42. Consider the following pairs:
I. Shah-ji-ki-Dheri – Pakistan
II. Amravati – Andhra Pradesh
III. Ajanta – Madhya Pradesh
Which of the above pair is/are correct?
A. I & II only
B. III only
D. II only

Ans: A

43. Consider the statements about motifs:
I. Animal images were often used as symbols of human attributes , elephants signify strength & wisdom
II. A motif in which a women is surrounded by lotuses & elephants is identified as figure either of Maya or Gajalakshmi
III. James Fergusson considered Sanchi to be a centre of tree & serpent worship
IV. The earliest known collection of women’s literature composed by Bhikkhunis is known as Theri Gatha
Which if the following is /are true ?

Ans: D

*Therigatha- Punna (slave women)

44. _______ means on the spot

Ans: In situ

Conservation of an archaeological asset in its original location

45. Identify the tradition-
* By first century CE, idea of saviour emerged it was believed that was the only one who could ensure salvation

* The deeply compassionate beings who accumulate merit through their efforts but used this not to attain the nibbana, but to help others were called Bodhisattas

* Worship of images became an important part of this tradition

Ans: Mahayana ( great vehicle) – New tradition

 *Hinayana (lesser vehicle) – Old tradition , also known as Theravadins

*Early Buddhist teachings had given importance to self effort to achieve nibbana

46. Choose the correct statement:
Statement 1- Bhakti refers to bond between devotee & the God
Statement 2- Ayudhas refers to warlords
A. Statement 2 is True , Statement 1 is False
B. Both are true
C. Statement 1 is True , Statement 2 s False
D. Both are False

Ans: C

Ayudhas- auspicious objects held by deities in their hands

47. Two statements are given in the question below as Assertion (A) and Reasoning (R). Read the statements and choose the appropriate option.
Assertion (A): Puranas compiled by Brahmanas were meant to be read by upper castes only
Reason (R): Garbhagriha & shikhara are part of temples

A. A is true but R is false.
B. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C. Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A
D. A is false but R is true.

Ans: D

*Puranas were meant to be read aloud by everybody including women & shudras

48. All of the following statements regarding vows of Jainism are correct except ─
A. Abstain from killing
B. to follow the path of moderation
C. Abstain from stealing and lying
D. to observe celibacy

Ans: B

Jaina monks and nuns took five vows: abstain from killing,

2. To abstain from stealing

3. Abstain from lying;

4. to observe celibacy; and

5. to abstain from possessing property

49. All of the following statements regarding Stupas are correct except ─
A. Asoka distributed portions of the Buddha’s relics to build stupas over them.
B. The tradition of erecting stupa was started by Asoka
C. Harmika, represented the abode of God
D. The stupa originated as a simple semi-circular mound of earth, called anda

Ans: B

The tradition of erecting stupas may have been pre-Buddhist, but they came to be associated with Buddhism

50. Look at the figure below. Which school of art is evident on the image of Bodhisatta?

A. Gandhara School of Art
B. Mathura School of Art
C. Graeco-Roman School of Art
D. Amaravati School of Art

Ans: A

51. Identify the place from where the given image inscription was found

A. Nagarjunkonda
B. Amravati
C. Sanchi
D. Bharhut

Ans: C

52. Identify the image & the place from where it was found

Ans: Image of Tirthankara from Mathura

53. The given sculpture from Amravati depicts :

A. Departure of Buddha from Sarnath
B. Arrival of Buddha at Bodh Gaya
C. Procession of Buddha on his birth anniversary
D. Departure of Buddha from his palace

Ans:  D

54. The given image of a gateway is from:

A. Sanchi
B. Kalsi
C. Amravati
D. Colombo

Ans: A

55. The given image is from which famous cave?

A. Altamira
B. Ajanta
C. Elephanta
D. Ellora

Ans: B

Buddha seated

56. Identify the given image-

A. Mahavira from Mathura
B. Buddha from Bamiyan
C. Varaha sculpture
D. Buddha from Mathura

Ans: D

57. Which of the following avatars of Vishnu is being depicted in the given image?

A. Buddha
B. Kalki
C. Varaha
D. Vamana

Ans: C

Varaha (Boar) Avatar of Vishnu rescuing earth goddess from Aihole, Karnataka

58. Identify the temple/structure:

A. Deogarh Temple
B. Barabar Cave
C. Kailashnatha Temple
D. Sanchi Stupa

Ans: C

Located in Ellora (Maharashtra)

*Deogarh Temple- Uttar Pradesh

*Barabar Cave – Bihar

59. The given sculpture is located at-

A.  Ellora
B. Ajanta
C. Mahabalipuram
D. Gandhara

Ans: C

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