 Humans use land for production, residence & recreation
 Land revenue department maintains land use records
 Survey of India is responsible for measuring geographical
area of administrative units


▪ Land revenue records measures forests area as ‘Area classified as
▪ This area is identified & demarcated by govt. for forest growth
▪ There may be increase in area classified as forest without increase in
actual forest cover

➢ Land put to non-agricultural uses:
▪ Expansion in secondary & tertiary activities lead to increase in this
▪ Includes land under settlements, infrastructure & industries

➢ Area under permanent pasture & grazing land:
▪ Mainly Owned by panchayat or govt.
▪ The land owned by village panchayat is called ‘Common property resource’

➢ Area under misc. tree , crops, groves
▪ Land under orchards & fruit trees are included
▪ This is mostly private owned

➢ Barren & Wastelands
▪ These lands are deserts , hilly terrains which can’t be brought
under cultivation with available technology

➢ Culturable Wastelands
▪ Land left uncultivated for more than five years are included in this
▪ It can be brought under cultivation after improvement

➢ Current Fallow
▪ Left uncultivated for one/less than one year

➢ Fallow other than current fallow
▪ Left uncultivated for more than a year but less than five years
*Fallowing: cultural practice adopted for giving the land rest to
regain lost fertility through natural processes

➢ Net area sown:
▪ Physical extent of land on which crops are sown & harvested known as net sown area


 Three types of changes which affect land use :

  1. Size of Economy:
    ▪ It grows over time because of increasing population
    income level changes also technology
    ▪ Pressure on land increases , marginal lands come to use
  2. Composition of Economy :
    ▪ Economy undergoes changes over time secondary &
    tertiary sectors grow faster than primary
    ▪ This will result in gradual shift of land from agricultural uses
    to non-agricultural uses
  1. Pressure on land:
    ▪ Contribution of agricultural activities reduces over time,
    but pressure on land for agricultural activities don’t
     In developing countries share of population on
    agriculture declines slowly than its share in GDP
     Number of people to feed by agriculture sector
    increases day by day.

 Land use categories have undergone many changes
▪ Share of area under forest has increased but the actual forest area
is not accounted
▪ Area under non-agricultural uses has increased due to shift from
primary to industrial sectors
▪ Current fallow lands have increased , they depend on rainfall &
cropping cycles
▪ Net area sown has increased as culturable wasteland is now used
for agricultural purpose
▪ Barren wasteland, culturable wasteland, have declined because
pressure on land has increased.
▪ Area under pastures declined because of illegal encroachments &
expansion of cultivation

CPR’s :- natural resource of community , every member has right to access &
usage with specified duty


 Land resource is important to people depending on agriculture:
▪ Agriculture is land based activity , contribution of land in agricultural
output is more than its contribution in other sectors
▪ Lack of access to land is directly related to poverty in rural areas
▪ Land quality has a direct bearing on productivity of agriculture as
compared to other sectors
▪ In rural areas, land ownership has a social value & serves as a security
for credit , hazards & also improves social status
*Total stock of agricultural land resources = Net sown area + Fallow +
Culturable wasteland


 There is a need to evolve & adopt land saving technologies because the scope of bringing additional land under net sown area is limited


 Cropping intensity = 𝐺𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 /𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑜𝑤𝑛 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 × 100
 For a labour abundant country high crop intensity is
required for fuller utilization of land resource & for
reducing unemployment in rural economy



 On the basis of main source of moisture for crops ,
farming is classified as irrigated & rainfed (barani)
 Irrigated farming is further classified as:

▪ Protective irrigation: objective is to protect the crops
from adverse effects of soil moisture deficiency and to
provide max area with moisture

▪ Productive irrigation : objective is to provide sufficient soil
moisture in crop season to achieve high productivity ,
water input/unit area of land is higher than protective

 Rainfed farming is divided on basis of adequacy of soil
moisture during cropping season:

▪ Confined to regions having annual rainfall less than 75 cm
▪ These regions grow hardy crops like bajra, jowar
▪ Practise various measures of soil moisture conservation & rain
water harvesting

▪ Rainfall is in excess of soil moisture requirement of plants
during rainy season
▪ These regions may face floods & soil erosion hazards
▪ Water intensive crops like rice, jute are grown
▪ Aquaculture is practised


▪ Occupy two-third of total cropped area of India
▪ On the basis of structure of grains food grains are classified as cereals & pulses


 Occupy 54% of total cropped area of India
 India produces 11 % cereals of the total world’s cereals
 India is third in production of cereals
 Cereals are classified as fine grains & coarse grains.

1.1 RICE

 Staple food for majority of population
 Crop of tropical humid areas has 3,000 varieties
 Grown in Punjab, Haryana, West UP during Kharif
 In West Bengal & Southern states favourable climatic conditions
allows cultivation of 2-3 crops of rice in an agricultural year
 Three crops of rice ‘aus’, ‘aman’ & ‘boro’ are grown in West Bengal
 Leading producers: West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh
 Punjab & Haryana weren’t traditional rice growing areas, irrigation
made possible to grow rice
 Green revolution lead to high rice yield in Punjab & Haryana


 Second most important cereal crop in India
 Crop of temperate zone cultivation is done during rabi
 Majorly concentrated in North & Central regions of India
 Mostly grown under irrigated conditions
 Leading wheat producers: UP, MP
 Yield level is high in Punjab & Haryana


 It is a type of coarse cereal
 Main food crop in semi-arid areas of central & southern India
 Leading producers: Maharashtra, Karnataka
 In South India sown in both Kharif & Rabi season
 In North-India it is Kharif crop grown mainly as fodder crop


 Sown in hot & dry climatic conditions in North-Western India
 Hardy crop resists dry spells & droughts
 Cultivated alone also as mixed cropping
 Leading producers: Maharashtra, Gujrat
 Yield has increased in Haryana & Gujarat due to
introduction of drought resistant varieties


 It is a food as well as fodder crop grown under semi-arid
climatic conditions over inferior soils
 It is sown all over India except Punjab ,Eastern states of India
 Leading producers: Karnataka, MP
 Yield of maize is high in s-states


 Important ingredient of veg food , rich source of protein
 Are legume crops, increase natural fertility of soil through nitrogen fixation
 India is leading producer of pulses in the world
 Are rainfed crops of drylands
 Gram, Tur are main pulses in India
 Cultivated in drylands of deccan & North-Western parts

2.1 GRAM

 Cultivated in sub-tropical areas
 Rainfed rabi crop
 Requires very little rainfall & irrigation
 Leading producers: MP, UP
 Gram has been displaced in cropping pattern of Haryana & Punjab by wheat


 Produced for extracting edible oils
 Grown in Drylands of Malwa Plateau, Gujrat
 Main oilseed crops: Groundnut, rapeseed, mustard , soyabean & sunflower


 Rainfed Kharif crop of dryland
 In South India cultivated in both Kharif & Rabi
 Leading Producers: Gujarat, Rajasthan
 Yield is high in Tamil Nadu due to irrigation


 Comprise various oilseeds like rai, sarson & toria
 Subtropical crop cultivated during rabi season
 Grown in N-W & Central India
 Are frost sensitive crops
 Leading producers: Rajasthan, Haryana


 Soyabean & Sunflower are also grown in India
 Leading soyabean producers: MP, Maharashtra
 Leading sunflower producers: Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh



 Tropical crop grown in Kharif , in semi-arid parts
 India lost large cotton area to Pakistan during partition
 India grows both short staple (Indian) & long staple (narma) cotton
 Requires clear sky during flowering stage
 India is second largest cotton producer
 Grown in Punjab, Haryana , Telangana
 Leading producers: Gujarat, Maharashtra


 Also known as golden fibre
 Used for making coarse cloth, bags & sacks
 Cash crop in West Bengal
 India lost large jute area to Bangladesh
 Leading producers: West Bengal, Bihar



 Crop of tropical areas
 Largely irrigated crop also cultivated in sub humid
 Grown in Indo-Gangetic Brahmaputra plain specifically
in UP
 India is second largest producer of it
 Leading Producers: UP, Maharashtra

2. TEA

 Plantation crop used as beverage
 Tea leaves are rich in caffeine & tannin
 It is an indigenous crop of hills in China
 Grown over undulating topography of hilly areas
 Tea plantation in India started in 1840s in Assam
 Leading producers: Assam, West Bengal
 Grown in Darjeeling , Jalpaiguri & Cardamom hills
 India is the leading tea producer in the world & second
in exporting


 Tropical plantation crop
 Seeds are roasted , ground to prepare beverage
 Famous varieties: Arabica, Robusta & Liberica
 India grows superior quality ‘Arabica’
 India is 6th in world ,Brazil is at 1
 Cultivated in Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala
 Leading producer: Karnataka


 Agriculture is important for Indian economy , 53% population dependent on agriculture
 57% of India’s land is under crop cultivation as compared to 12% in world
 Indian agriculture has marched a long way since independence


 Goal of govt after independence was:
▪ Switching from cash to food crops
▪ Intensification of cropping over already cultivated land
▪ Increase cultivated area by bringing cultivable & fallow
land under plough
▪ These strategies helped in increasing food grain production

 To overcome problem of agriculture stagnation two
programmes launched:

  1. Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP)
  2. Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP)


 HYV’s of wheat developed in –Mexico
 HYV’s of rice developed in – Philippines
 India introduced package technology including HYV’s ,
chemical fertilisers with irrigation known as Green revolution
 It increased foodgrain production made India self-reliant
 Green revolution was introduced in affluent states of
Punjab, Haryana & Western UP
 Boosted development of agro-inputs & SSI
 Lead to regional disparities as it was confined to limited areas


 Planning commission focused on the problems of agriculture in rainfed areas in 1980s
 Initiated agro-climatic planning in 1988 to induce
regionally balanced agricultural development in the country
 Emphasised on the need for diversification of agriculture
to dairy farming, poultry & horticulture

*With the introduction of LPG policy agriculture sector
suffered due to withdrawl of subsidies


  1. Platform for farmers to get information related to agriculture
  2. Information on farmer’s insurance , crops,pesticides etc. is provided in detail
  3. Details of feritlisers, market price of crops, welfare schemes are also given
  4. Details related to soil fertiliy are also available
  5. Farm friendly handbook is also available to download

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)

  1. Launched to make agriculture more productive, sustainable by promoting location specific farming
  2. Conserve natural resources through apt soil and moisture conservation methods
  3. Organic farming is being promoted in the country by the govt. through schemes like Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) and Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)


 Dependence on Erratic Monsoon
▪ Indian agriculture highly depends on monsoon , 67% of
cultivated area depends on rain & 33% depend on irrigation
▪ Poor performance of S-West Monsoon affects agriculture
▪ Rainfall in Rajasthan & other parts is low & unreliable
▪ Low rainfall leads to drought & high rainfall to floods
which are twin menace of Indian agriculture
▪ Recent floods and drought in Rajasthan & Gujarat
created problems for farmers

 Low Productivity
▪ There is low productivity of crops in India compared to
international level
▪ Productivity of rice, wheat , cotton is lower than of USA, Russia
▪ Labour productivity is also low because of high pressure on land resources
▪ Drylands which grow coarse cereals & pulses have low yields

 Constraints of Financial Resources & Indebtedness
▪ Inputs of modern agriculture are very expensive and are not manageable by marginal & small farmers.
▪ Farmers fall in trap of indebtedness due to crop failure & low returns
▪ Farmers take out credit from various institutions & moneylenders

 Vast Underemployment
▪ Massive underemployment in Agri sector especially in unirrigated tracts
▪ Seasonal unemployment range from 4-8 months
▪ Even in cropping season work isn’t available as agricultural operations are not labour intensive
▪ People engaged in agriculture do not have opportunity to work round the year

 Lack of Land Reforms
▪ Indian peasants had been exploited for a long time due
to unequal land distribution
▪ Land revenue systems like Zamindari, Ryotwari exploited peasants
▪ State govt were unwilling to take actions against zamindars
▪ Lack of land reforms deepened inequalities in land distribution

 Small Farm Size & Fragmented Land Holdings
▪ In India there are large number of small & marginal
▪ More than 60% of holdings have size smaller than one
hectare & 40% have less than .5 hectares
▪ Expanding population is shrinking the land holdings
▪ Some states haven’t carried out consolidation once
while other states need a second land consolidation
▪ Lands are being divided to owners of next generation ,
small size fragmented lands are uneconomic

 Lack of Commercialisation
▪ India have large number of farmers who produce crops
for self-consumption
▪ Farmers do not have enough land resources to produce
crops for sale in market
▪ Farmers grow crops only for subsistence not for
commercial purpose
▪ Modernisation & Commercialisation of agriculture have
taken place only in irrigated areas

 Degradation of Cultivable Land
▪ Poor strategy of irrigation & agriculture development has led to
degradation of land resources & depletion of soil fertility
▪ In irrigated areas soil has lost its fertility due to alkanisation &
salinization of soils
▪ Excessive use of chemicals has led to concentration in toxic amounts
in soil profile , water logging also a major threat
▪ Leguminous crops have been displaced from cropping pattern in
irrigated areas
▪ Multiple cropping has led to reduction in fallow lands
▪ Rainfed areas in humid areas experience degradation like soil
erosion & wind erosion , induced by human activities

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