Q1.Why do people migrate? State the four streams of migration in India.
• People migrate from one place to other mainly due to poverty & lack of
basic facilities like health , education etc.
• Natural calamities also force people to migrate
• Push & Pull factors make people to migrate from one place to another
• Four streams of migration are:

  1. Rural to Urban
  2. Urban to Urban
  3. Rural to Rural
  4. Urban to Rural

Q2. What is the National Youth Policy of government of India ?
• The National Youth Policy was launched in 2014
• Proposes a holistic vision for the youth (15-29 years) of India
• Focus is to empower the youth of the country to achieve their aspirations & through them make a better India
• Government has launched another policy ‘National Policy for Skill
Development’ to skill the youth & match their skills with demand centres

Q3. Describe in brief the consequences of migration in India
• Positive Consequences:

  1. Benefits the region people migrate from , migrants send
    remittances which plays an important role in the lives of poor
  2. Green revolution was successful due to the migration of workers
    from poor rural areas

• Negative Consequences:

  1. Unregulated migration leads to overcrowding
  2. Development of slums in the major states like Maharashtra

Q4.”The decades 1951-81 are referred to as the period of population
explosion in India”. Explain the statement by giving three reasons

The decades of 1951-81 are referred to as the period of population explosion
the reasons for this are:

  1. Rapid fall in mortaility rate & but a fertility rate
  2. Average annual growth rate was high 2.2%
  3. Living conditions of people were improved due to introduction of planning
  4. International migration from Bangladesh , Tibet etc. to our country also led to population explosion

Q5. Explain any three push factors which compel the people to migrate
from one place to another

• Push factors are the factors which force the people to leave their
place of origin

  1. Work & Employment is a push factor which force rural people to
    move in urban areas
  2. Poverty is also a push factor which forces people to move in areas
    with better food availability
  3. Political disturbances & conflicts also make people move to other

Q6. Explain any five causes for the stagnant growth of population from 1901-1921
• The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as the period of stagnant
growth of population

  1. Lack of health & medical facilities led to constant growth
  2. High birth rate & high death rate were also the reasons for this
  3. Public distribution system was improper
  4. Migration was low due to low level of economic development
  5. Level of literacy was low

Q7. Explain the causes of migration of unskilled migrants from rural to urban areas in India and their sufferings
• Causes:

  1. Poverty & hunger in rural areas
  2. More employment opportunities in urban areas
  3. Inequality in economic development , some states were rich & some were poor
  4. Irregular work & lower wages in rural areas
  5. Better healthcare services in urban areas (ANY 3)

• Sufferings:

  1. Migrants have to live far away from their family
  2. Migration of males from rural areas puts pressure on women
  3. Migrants to urban areas often get involved in drug abuse & other malpractices

Q8. What are the two main components of population growth in India?
Describe the main feature of each component

• The two main components are:

Natural growth:
1.Refers to the growth in population
2. In india natural growth is more influential

Induced growth
1. Refers to growth in population caused by migration
2. It is caused by economic development of a region which attracts people from other countries to migrate

Q9. Explain the main reasons for the migration of males & females separately in India.
• Migration is the movement of people from one place to another due to push & pull factors
• Male migration:

  1. The main cause for male migration is work & employment
  2. About 38% of males migrate due to employment

• Female migration

  1. The main cause for female migration is marriage , about 65% women
    migrate after marriage
  2. Meghalaya is an exception where female migration is less as males migrate after marriage

Q10. Differentiate between hameleted & dispersed rural settlement of India

Hamelted settlementsDispersed settlements
Fragmented physical unit of settlementIsolated forms of huts in remote jungles
Units are locally known as para, palli , nagla ,dhani etc.Caused by extreme fragmentation of terrain & land resources
Found in mid lower Ganga Plain & ChhattisgarhFound in areas of Meghalaya & Uttarakhand

Q11. Explain the spatial distribution of population density in india. • The spatial distribution of population density is very uneven in India

  1. Statewise it is lowest in Arunachal Pradesh(17 persons / &
    highest in Bihar (1102 persons/
  2. In Union territories it is highest in NCT Delhi & lowest in Andaman & Nicobar Islands
  3. Population density is very high in the northern states
  4. Gujrat & Haryana have moderate population density
  5. North eastern states except for Assam have low density of

Q12. Many of the modern towns in India were built in the British
period .Explain in brief

• Europeans & British developed many modern towns in India
• They developed trading ports like Surat , Goa & Puducherry
• Also developed the major cities Mumbai , Chennai & Kolkata in British style
• British also established their administrative setups in hill towns &
military areas
• Towns based on modern industries like Jamshedpur were also built

Q13. Which are the three groups of Indian Population according to their economic status ? Explain the main characteristics of each group
• The three groups are:

1.Main Workers:
• A person who works six months a year
• Mostly involved in non-agricultural sector contribute the highest to GDP

2. Marginal Workers:
• A person who works for less than six months a year
• Mostly engaged in agricultural sector

3. Non Workers:
• A person who doesn’t work for living
• They are dependent on working population for their needs

Q14. Give the importance of irrigation for agriculture in India
• Increase Production : Production is low in areas where agriculture is
dependent on rainfall, irrigation is required to ensure high production

• Decrease dependency on Monsoon: Irrigation is must to decrease the
dependency on monsoon for crop cultivation, only 33% of land is
irrigated in India

• Maintain balance between population & food production: India with
such a large population can’t depend on monsoon for crop cultivation , to increase the food productivity the unirrigated lands should be cultivated with irrigation

Q15. Distinguish between rural & urban settlements of India

1. The major economic activities are primary actvities1. The major economic activities are secondary & tertiary activities
2. They are dependent on land & other natural resources for income2. Provide various services like transport & communication
3. Social bonds are stronger & life is simple3. Social bonds are formal & life is complex

Q16. Differentiate between protective & productive irrigation

1. Aims to protect the crop from adverse effects of soil moisture loss1. Aims to provide adequate moisture to soil , to increase productivity
2. Due to irregular rainfall this system is alternative source of water for crops2. The water input per unit of area of cultivated land is greater in this system as compared to protective irrigation
3. In this system , productivity remains low3. In this system , productivity remains high

Q17. Differentiate between clustered & dispersed rural settlements
stating three points of difference between each other

1. Houses are closely built , space between them is very less1. Houses are scattered , space between them is very high
2. Found in fertile northern plains2. Found in remote hilly & mountainous areas
3. Present some geometrical shapes like linear ,rectangular4. No pattern of geometrical shapes , as the houses are far apart

Q18. “Land resource are more crucial to the livelihood of the people
depending on agriculture” Support this statement with three suitable

• Land as a resource is more important for the people of India as two third of population is involved in it

  1. Dependency on agriculture is high than that of other sectors as it is land
    based activity lack of access to land is an indicator of poverty in rural
  2. Quality of land has a direct bearing on the productivity of agriculture
  3. Ownership of land resource indicates social status in rural areas & serves
    as security for credit

Q19. What are metropolitan cities & megacities? Give two examples of
each metropolitan & megacities

• Metropolitan cities:

  1. Cities which have population more than one million but less than
    five million
  2. Example: Kanpur, Jaipur, Madurai etc.

• Mega Cities:

  1. Cities which have population more than 5 million are megalopolis or
  2. Example: Delhi , Mumbai , Chennai etc.

Q20. Explain any three features of dryland farming in India

  1. Dryland Farming is done in the regions having rainfall less than 75 cm
  2. It is a type of rainfed farming , the main source of soil moisture for
    cultivation is rainfall
  3. These regions grow hardy crops like bajra & ragi

Q21.Explain three characteristics of clustered rural settlements of India
• The houses are built very close to each other so the space between them is very less
• General living area is distinct & separated from surrounding farms
• Clustered settlements also present shapes like rectangular, linear etc.
• Found in fertile alluvial plains & north eastern states
• People also live in compact village for security reasons like in Nagaland
(ANY 3)

Q22. Describe any three characteristics of wetland farming

  1. Rainfall is in excess of soil moisture requirements of plants during
    rainy seasons
  2. The regions of wetland farming often face flood & soil erosion hazards
  3. These areas grow water intensive crops like rice & jute
  4. Aquaculture is also practiced in waterbodies

Q23. Explain the features of semi-clustered settlements of India
• These settlements are formed by clustering in a restricted area of
dispersed settlement also by separation of large compact village
• Can also be developed when one or more sections of society
choose/forced to live away from the main village
• These type of settlement are found in Gujrat plain & some parts of

Q24. State any two characteristics each of three distinct cropping seasons of India
• Kharif

  1. Starts with the onset of South-West Monsoon (June-September)
  2. Crops cultivated- Rice, cotton , Jowar etc.

• Rabi

  1. Rabi season starts with the onset of winter(October-March)
  2. Crops cultivated- Wheat , gram ,mustard etc.

• Zaid

  1. It is a short season between rabi & kharif season (April-June)
  2. Crops cultivated- Watermelons, Cucumbers etc.

Q25. Give the meaning of dispersed settlement .Explain any two
reasons for development of such settlement in India

• In dispersed settlements houses are built far apart from each other
• Dispersed settlements are found in the form of few huts in remote jungles
• Reasons

  1. Extremely fragmented nature of terrain
  2. Land resource base of habitable areas Dispersed settlements are found in the states Meghalaya & Uttarakhand

Q26. Mention any six land use categories in India

1. Forest- Area demarcated & identified for forest growth

2. Culturable Wasteland- Land left uncultivated for more than five years,
can be used to cultivate crops by using technology & other techniques

3. Barren Wasteland- Land which can’t be used for cultivation with
available technology

4. Net Area Sown- Physical extent of land on which crops are grown

5. Land put to non-agricultural uses- Land which is not used in agriculture
but in other secondary or tertiary activities

6. Current Fallow- land left uncultivated for one or less than one year

Q27. What are ancient towns? Give four examples of ancient towns in India
• Emerged during the ancient period , more than 2000 years ago
• Most of these towns developed as religious & cultural centres
• Varanasi is one of the most important town & today it is one the
oldest living city in the world
• Examples: Prayag, Pataliputra, Madurai ,Varanasi

Q28.”Land use in a region to a large extent is influenced by the nature
of economic activities carried out in that region” Support the statement
by giving three arguments from India”

• Three types of changes that have affected land use in India are:

1. Size of economy: Pressure on land increases as a result of
population increase & marginal lands would come to use

2. Composition of economy: Secondary & tertiary sector would grow
faster than primary sector over time

3. Contribution of agricultural activities reduces over time but the
pressure on land does not decline

Q29. Explain the evolution of Indian towns in three points
• On the basis of evolution Indian towns can be classified as:

1. Ancient towns:
i. These towns span over 2000 years
ii. Examples: Madurai, Varanasi , Prayag

2. Medieval towns:
i. These towns were developed during the medieval period as fort towns
ii. Examples: Delhi, Jaipur, Agra

3. Modern towns:
i. These were developed by Britishers & other Europeans
ii. Examples: Goa, Kolkata , Mumbai

Q30. “Land degradation caused by human made process are more harmful than natural process are more harmful than natural processes in India ” Analyse the statement with three examples
• Human activities are more harmful than natural processes for causing degrading land
• The land degradation started after the Green revolution due to use of new
methods like chemical fertilisers, irrigation etc.
• Alkanity & salinity caused by humans is the main reason for land degradation
• Human processes like shifting cultivation, deforestation has also
deteriorated the land quality

Q31. Name any three factors that determine the clustered rural settlements in India

• Fertile Alluvial Plain:

  1. Provides plain surface for the building of houses also plains can support
    very large population
  2. Agriculture is more productive which attracts people to settle in

• Defence:

  1. People live in compact areas for security reasons
  2. In Nagaland people live in compact settlements to avoid theft

• Water:

  1. Also cause people to live in compact settlements
  2. Scarcity of water force people to live in compact settlements like in Rajasthan

Q32. How is the degradation of cultivable land one of the serious
problem in India ? Explain in any three points

• Degradation of cultivable land is one of the serious problem in India

1.Natural fertilization processes of soil like nitrogen fixation by
cultivation of leguminous crops are not adopted due to the
displacement of legume crops with the commercial crops

2. Unregulated & over irrigation has led to alkanisation , salinization &
water logging

3. Intensive use of chemicals have resulted in degradation of cultivable land .It has deteriorated the soil fertility

Q33. Explain any three factors that determine the type of rural
settlement in India.

  1. Physical factors: include nature of terrain , climate & water
  2. Culture & Ethnic factors: social structure ,caste & religion also affect
    the type of rural settlement
  3. Security factors: Include protection from thefts & crimes

Q34. Classify Indian farming into two groups on the basis of main source of moisture for crops write two features of each
• Irrigated farming

1. The main source of moisture for crops is irrigation by wells tube wells

2. It is of two types on the basis of objective of farming first is productive(
productivity of crops is increased)and second is protective (crops are
saved from drought by providing them adequate moisture)

• Rainfed farming

1.The main source of moisture for for crops is rainfall

2. It is done in the areas of dry lands (areas which receive rainfall less then
75cm) and wetlands (areas that receives sufficient rainfall )

Q35. Examine the success of watershed management programme
implemented in Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh

1. Land degradation has been controlled significantly

2. Soil quality has been improved with the implementation of this

3. People of Jhabua planted fodder grass on the pasture land &
adopted social fencing for atleast two years

4. This programme emphasize on the linkage between land, water &
vegetation also aims to improve livelihoods of people through
resource management & community participation

Q36. Explain any three main characteristics of mineral resources of India

1. Minerals of good quality are less in amount and minerals of low
quality are more in amount on earth (quality and quantity of
minerals have an inverse relationship

2. The distribution of minerals over earth surface is uneven some
regions have good sources of minerals while others have poor
sources of minerals

3. Minerals are exhaustible in nature and take a long time to

Q 37. Examine any three causes for the deterioration of quality of water in India
• Water quality refers to the purity of water

1. The foreign substances like microbes ,chemicals and industrial
waste makes water polluted and it becomes unfit for the use of
human beings

2. Toxic substances enters into lakes rivers and decline the quality of
water also harms aquatic life

3. Toxic substances also seep down the earth and pollute groundwater

Q 38. Give the significance of bioenergy to human beings in India

Processing of biological products like agricultural remains generate

  1. It can be used by converting it into electricity heat energy or gas for
    cooking food
  2. It can also solve the problem of garbage and waste in urban areas
    because energy can also be derived from these
  3. It can improve the socio economic life of rural people and also it
    can reduce environmental pollution

Q 39. How has rainwater harvesting helped in the development of
certain areas of India? Explain with examples.

Rainwater harvesting is a cheap an eco-friendly technique to store
rainwater for future use

  1. It recharges groundwater aquifers for alternative uses
  2. Also it prevent soil erosion and flooding and save life ,property
  3. It improves the quality of groundwater by by diluting pollutants like fluoride
  4. Helps to reduce conflicts between states for water

Q40.”The promotion of the use of non conventional sources of energy
in India is the need of the hour “support the statement”

1.In comparison to conventional sources of energy the nonconventional sources of energy are cheaper and renewable.

2.Use of non conventional energy sources would lead to reduction in
carbon dioxide emissions

3.The use of non conventional sources of energy and sustainable
development as they are environment friendly

4.Bio energy which is an example of non conventional energy sources
can help to improve the rural economic life

Q41. How do industries pollute India’s water bodies? Explain with

• Industries release poisonous gases, chemicals, dust, waste water etc.
• Industries have grown rapidly in the last decades also the toxicants which pollute water
• Leather, pulp & paper are the most polluting industries
• All the industries do not have affluent treatment machines so they
release the untreated waste

Q42.Give two advantages of manganese. Give four manganese
producing states of India


  1. Important raw material used in iron and steel industry for smelting
    of iron ore
  2. Used in the manufacturing of Ferro alloys

Managanese producing states:

• Odisha-is the largest producer of manganese, important mine is in Koraput
• Karnataka- important mine is in Shimoga
• Maharashtra-important mine is in Nagpur
• Madhya Pradesh-important mine is in Balaghat

Q43. Why is conservation of water resources necessary ? Give three reasons

  1. Low availability of fresh water: Explain it in brief
  2. For sustainable development- Water is an important resource if we
    do not conserve it development is impossible
  3. For crop cultivation-irrigation is used to cultivate crops & to ensure
    good yield of crops water is must

Q44. Explain any three methods of conservation of minerals resources
in India

• Conservation of minerals is necessary for sustainable development
• Three methods:

  1. Scrap metals should be recycled and their use should be
    encouraged , it can save the new minerals from getting mined
  2. Substitute metal should be used of scarce metals which can reduce
    their consumption
  3. Renewable sources like wind & solar energy should be used , this
    can save the energy minerals like coal

Q45. Examine the watershed development & management
programmes initiated by the government In India

  1. Neeru-Meeru programme has been started by the government of
    Andhra Pradesh
  2. Arvary Pani sansad has been setup in Rajasthan
  3. Water harvesting structure in houses is compulsory in Tamil Nadu
  4. Haryali , watershed development programme aims at enabling rural
    population to conserve water for different uses

• From the above examples it is clear that government of India is
making continuous efforts to conserve water & the programmes have
rejuvenated the environment

Q46. Give two advantages of copper Mention four copper mining areas of India
• Copper is a non-ferrous mineral, found in India
• Advantages:

  1. Copper is alloyable,malleable, ductile therefore used in electrical industry for making wires & other electrical equipments
  2. Also, mixed with jewellery to give strength

• Copper mining areas

  1. Singhbhum in Jharkhand
  2. Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh
  3. Khetri in Rajasthan
  4. Alwar in Rajasthan

Q47.Explain watershed management .What is its aim?
• Watershed management means proper use, management & conserving
water resources
• Conservation of water resources is done through recharge wells & tanks etc.
• In broader terms, conservation , regeneration& judicious use of all natural
resources & human resources in a watershed is called watershed

• Aim of watershed management:

  1. Balance physical elements of nature
  2. Enable the population to conserve water for drinking , irrigation etc.

Q48. Give two advantages of wind energy .Mention four states of India
having favourable conditions for the development of wind energy

• Wind energy is a type of non-conventional energy
• Advantages:

  1. It is a clean fuel, doesn’t pollute environment like coal & petroleum
  2. Electricity can be produced through wind energy in areas having
    permanent wind systems
  3. The cost of maintenance is very minimal , only setup is expensive
    • Rajasthan , Maharashtra, Gujarat & Karnataka

Q49. Why is demand of water for irrigation increasing day by day in
India ? Explain any three reasons

1.Due to spatio-temporal variability of rainfall need for irrigation is
very high , regions which do not receive much rainfall are
dependent on irrigation for crop cultivation

2.Water intensive crops like Rice, Jute require more water which
increase the demand of water

3.Most of the parts of India are water deficient & dry so water is
required to sustain the crops

Q50. Describe the broad belts of minerals in India.
• North-Eastern Plateau Region:

  1. Covers Chhotanagpur, Odisha plateau , West Bengal & Chhattisgarh
  2. Major iron & steel industries are located here
  3. Minerals found:- Iron, Coal, Bauxite & Manganese

• South-Western Plateau Region:

  1. Covers Karnataka , Goa, Kerala & uplands of Tamil Nadu
  2. Rich in ferrous metals & bauxite; high grade iron ore & limestone
  3. Kerala has monazite & thorium deposits , Goa has rich iron ore deposits

• North-Western Region

  1. Extends along Aravalli & parts of Gujarat
  2. Minerals found are associated with Dharwar rock system
  3. Gujarat is rich in petroleum deposits

Q51. Describe any three key features of India’s National Water Policy,2002
• National Water Policy, 2002 describes the water allocation priorities in
the following order drinking water, irrigation, hydro-power etc.
• Features:

  1. Areas where there is no alternative source of drinking water &
    irrigation multipurpose projects
  2. Provide potable water for human being & animals
  3. Exploitation of groundwater should be stopped & limited by
    adopting suitable measures

Q52. Describe the uneven distribution of mineral & energy resources in India by giving examples
• India is rich in minerals , metallic minerals are found in peninsular plateau in the igneous rocks
• 97% of coal reserves are in valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi & Godavari.
• Petroleum reserves are located in sedimentary basins of Assam, Gujarat,
Mumbai high
• Major minerals lie in eastern part of India.
• Minerals are distributed over:

  1. North-eastern plateau region
  2. South-western plateau region
  3. North-western region

Q53. Describe any three major problems related to water in India

  1. Low availability of fresh water: explain it in brief
  2. Water Pollution: explain it in brief
  3. Uneven distribution of water resources : explain it in brief

Q54. Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?

1.Challenge for sustainable development requires integration of
economic development with environmental concerns

2.Traditional methods of resource use result into generation of lage quantity of waste as well as as create other environmental problems

3.Sustainable development calls for the protection of resources for
future generation

4.Rate of consumption of mineral resources is faster than its
regeneration rate calling for its conservation

Q55. Explain any three factors responsible for the development of
Bengaluru-Chennai industrial region

  1. Development of this region is dependent on the Pykara
    hydroelectric plant built in 1932
  2. Cheap skilled labour & proximity to local market was the main
    reason for development
  3. Cotton textile industry grew rapidly & also attracted other
    industries like machine tools & electronics

Q56. How has the introduction of Indira Gandhi Canal in Rajasthan influenced the environmental conditions of the region positively ?Explain in any three points

  1. Availability of soil moisture for longer period of time & afforestation
    has lead to greening of this area
  2. Command area development programmes has helped to reduce
    wind erosion & siltation
  3. Spread of canal irrigation has lead to increase in cropping intensity ,
  4. Now wheat & rice are also grown

Q57. Explain any three main objectives of the new industrial policy of
India announced in 1991

  1. Correct economic weakness: explain it in brief
  2. Employment & international competitiveness: explain it in brief
  3. Build on gains already made: explain it in brief
  4. Maintain sustained growth in productivity :explain it in brief

Q58. Explain the main aims of the Bharmaur Tribal Area Development plan

  1. Improving the life quality of Gaddis
  2. Reducing the gap in the level of development between Bharmaur &
    other districts of Himachal Pradesh
  3. Development of transport & communication networks
  4. Providing health , education to all

Q59. Explain any three factors responsible for development of
Mumbai-Pune Industrial region

  1. Cotton textile industry in Mumbai was the main cause of
  2. Suez Canal opened in 1869 contributed in growth of Mumbai port
  3. With cotton textile industry ,drilling stations like Mumbai High ,nuclear plants also developed
  4. Engineering & transport goods were produced & exported

Q60. Write characteristics of road transport in India

  1. India has second largest road network in the world of 54.8 lakh km
  2. Carry 85% of passenger & 70% of freight every year
  3. After independence twenty year road plan (1961) was introduced
    to improve roads
  4. Roads are spread in urban areas , rural & remote areas has least
    road connectivity
  5. Road density is uneven across the country , highest in Kerala &
    lowest in Jammu & Kashmir

Q61.Explain any three factors that have helped in the development of Hugli Industrial region

  1. Developed with development of Kolkata port , Kolkata- Haora form
    the nucleus of this region
  2. Tea plantations in Assam , Jute processing , coal fields, iron deposits
    contributed in industrial development of this region
  3. Cheap labour is also the reason for this region’s development

Q62. Why is the Indian railways divided into sixteen zones? Name the
headquarters of Souther,Eastern,Northern & Western zones

• India has one of the largest railway system in the world
• To reduce the pressure of this large size Indian railways has been
divided into sixteen zones

  1. Northern Zone- New Delhi
  2. Eastern Zone- Kolkata
  3. Southern Zone- Chennai
  4. Western Zone- Mumbai

Q63. Give the significance of iron & steel industry in three points

  1. It provides basic structure to all the economic sectors
  2. Provides employment opportunity , improve standard of living
  3. Its development lead rapid industrial development in India .
  4. Indian iron & steel industry consist Integrated steel plants & Mini steel mills

Q64.Describe any three characteristics of state highways of India

  1. These are constructed & maintained by state government
  2. Connect the state capitals with district headquarters & other
    important towns
  3. State highways are further connected to National Highways which
    help in the movement of goods & services

Q65. Why are the iron & steel plants located near the source of raw
materials in India

• Iron & steel plants use weight losing raw material thus they are
located near the source of raw material
• Raw materials like Iron ore & coal both lose their weight during
• Most of the iron & steel plants like Bhilai is located near Dalli Rajahara
hills (source of iron ore)

Q66. Give three advantages of satellite communication in India

•Satellites are mode of communication , also regulate use of other means
of communication

  1. Use of satellite in getting continuous & synoptic view of larger area has
    made satellite communication vital due to economic & strategic reasons
  2. Satellite images can be used for weather forecast monitoring , natural
    calamities , surveillance of border areas , etc.
  3. Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) , a multipurpose satellite is
    helpful in telecom & meteorological information
  4. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System is useful in management of
    natural resources (ANY 3)

Q67. Explain the role of Market & Transport in the location of industries
• Market affect & transport are the factors affecting location of
• Market oriented industries like machine, automobiles are located
close to the market
• Cotton textile industry is also located near demand centres
• Transport also plays an important role , major industries are located
near ports, highways or rail routes

Q68. Which is the most effective & advanced personal communication system in India? Give its four characteristics
• The most effective & advanced personal communication system in India is
• Characteristics:

  1. Internet enables users to communicate through e-mail & get access to the
    world of knowledge & information
  2. Communication through internet is a cheaper mode of communication in
    comparison to to other modes
  3. Internet is used for e-commerce, e-governance etc.
  4. Internet is widely used in urban areas

Q69. Explain any three factors which helped in the development of
Gujrat Industrial region

  1. Gujrat industrial region is close to both raw material & market
  2. Petrochemical industries established due to oilfields around Ankaleshwar & Jamnagar
  3. Kandla port is also the reason for its development
  4. Became important with decline of Cotton Textile industry in

Q70. Which are the two types of roads included under the category of other roads in India? Write any two features of each
• Border roads & International Highways are included under the category of other roads in India
• Border roads:

  1. Strategically important roads along the boundary of the country
  2. These roads are important for economic development & strengthen defence preparedness

• International Highways

  1. Aim to promote harmonious relationship with neighbouring countries
  2. Also provide neighbouring countries an effective link with India

Q71. Explain the role of power & raw material in the location of heavy industries in India.
• Power & raw material are the key factors for location of industries
• Power supply is necessary to run machines, so industries prefer to be near the source of power
• Industries like Aluminium use power in large quantities so it is important for them to be located near the source
• Industries dependent on raw materials are near the source of raw material
• Especially industries which use weight losing materials like coal & iron ore
prefer to setup near the raw material source

Q72. The distribution of roads in India is not uniform .Examine the statement by giving three reasons.
• Reasons

1.North-eastern states have less density of roads as they are inaccessible

2.Level of economic development is also a key reason for non-uniformity of roads , developed states like Kerala , Maharashtra have high density of roads

3. Roads can be easily constructed in plain areas at cheap cost while it is costs more to built roads in hilly areas , Himalayan states have low density

Q73. Study the diagram & answer these questions

  1. Identify the name of the steel plant
    • Tata Iron & Steel Plant
  2. Name the mining fields which supply coal & limestone to
    this plant
    • Coal is supplied by Jharia coal fields & limestone by
  3. Mention the source of water for this plant
    • Subarnarekha & Kharkai river

Q74. What are the three categories to the track of Indian railways? Give one feature of each
• The track of Indian railways are divided into three categorised on the basis of width

  1. Broad Gauge:
    • Distance between rails is 1.67 m
  2. Metre Gauge:
    • Distance between the rail is one metre
  3. Narrow Gauge:
    • Distance between the rail is 0.76 m , it is confined to hilly areas

Q75. Study the diagram & answer these questions

  1. Identify & name the steel plant
    • Bhilai steel plant
  2. In which state is it located?
    • Chhattisgarh
  3. Name the source of iron ore for this plant
    • Dalli Rajahara Hills
  4. Mention the thermal power plant which supplies power to it
    • Korba Thermal Power Plant
  5. Mention the source of water to this plant
    • Tandula tank
  6. Which rail route provide transport facilities to this plant?
    • Kolkata-Mumbai Railway route

Q76. Give any three advantages of pipelines as a means of transport in India

  1. It is the most convenient & efficient means of transporting liquids &
    gases over long distances
  2. Its initial setup cost is high after that it is very cheap to transport
    liquids & gases
  3. Pipelines can also transport solids like coal after converting them
    into slurry
  4. Naharakatiya & HVJ are important pipelines functioning in India

Q77. Study the diagram & answer these questions

  1. Identify & name the steel plant
    • Durgapur steel plant
  2. Name the mining areas which supply coal &
    manganese to this plant
    • Raniganj & Jharia supply coal , Noamudi
    supply manganese
  3. Name the source of water supply to this plant
    • River Damodar

Q78. “Most of India’s foreign trade is carried through sea routes ” explain the statement in three points

1.Long coastlines- India has a long coastline of 7,517 km which provides
good sea connectivity

2.Cheapest Means of transport- explain it in brief

3.Open to sea from three sides- India’s international trade is benefitted
with the geographical location of India, surrounded by seas on three
*95% of India’s trade by volume & 70% by value moves through oceanic
routes hence we can say “Most of India’s foreign trade is carried through sea routes “

Q79. “Indiscriminate use of water by increasing population & industrial
expansion has led to degradation of the water quality considerably in
India” Explain the values that can help in maintain water quality

  1. Innovation of water saving technology : explain it in brief
  2. Participation of people to conserve water: explain it in brief
  3. Creating awareness among masses: explain it in brief

Q80. Study the diagram & answer these questions

1.Which migration stream shows the highest number of migration in both male & female categories
• Rural-Rural

2.Why does this migration stream show the highest
migration in both categories ?Give one reason for each
• Rural to rural migration stream has highest number of females because of marriage while males have highest number due to work & employment

3.Why do female migrants dominate all four streams of migration ?Give two reasons
• Marriage & movement with household

4.What is the common feature shown among all the streams of migration?
• Dominance of female migration in all the streams

Q81. Describe any three major problems of slums in India
• Slums are areas with poor environment & degraded surroundings
• Problems:

  1. Face health related problems like malnutrition & other diseases , low level of income makes their children unable to attend classes
  2. Slum residents are prone to anti-social activities like crime, theft & drug abuse
  3. Slums have broken houses with poor ventilation, unhygienic conditions and lack of basic facilities like drinking water

Q82. Study the diagram & answer the questions

1.Which class of cities has the highest percentage share in total urban
population & why?
• Class-1 city, because of high industrial development & more employment opportunities

2. Into how many classes are urban centres classified by census of India
• Six classes

3.Which class of urban centres has the lowest urban population
• Class-6

4.What is the population size of the second class of cities
• 50,000-99,999

5.What is the percentage share of urban population in class-1 cities?
• 60.45%

6.Which class of cities consists of highest number of cities?
• Class-5

Q83. How is the degradation of cultivable land one of the serious
problems in India ?Explain in any three points

• Limited availability & deterioration in quality of available land put
pressure on land resource
• Natural & Human processes are responsible for the degradation,
humans contribute more in the degradation
• Cultivable land face serious issues like alkanisation , salinization &

Q84. Define & Give any three consequences of air pollution
• Air pollution refers to the concentration of contaminants like smoke, dust
harmful gases in the air for a long period of time

  1. Air pollution in large results into acid rain, which is harmful for terrestrial life
  2. Air pollution often cause smog over metropolitan cities like Delhi
  3. Air pollution is harmful to both flora & fauna
  4. Aged & elders are the worst sufferers as air pollution cause respiratory diseases
  5. Air pollution also deteriorates our vast cultural heritage i.e. Monuments

Q85.What is noise pollution ? Explain any four sources of noise
• Noise pollution refers to a noise that is unbearable & causes discomfort to
human beings
• Sources:

  1. Industries cause noise pollution by using heavy & noisy machines
  2. Traffic is a major source of noise pollution also creates inconvenience for people
  3. Sea & oceans also contribute to air pollution due to loading & unloading activities
  4. Construction works, loudspeakers, aircrafts etc. also create noise

Q86.Why is urban waste disposal a serious problem in India? Give any three reasons
• In India urban waste disposal is a serious problem as most of the solid waste remains uncollected
• Reasons:

1.Industrial solid waste cause water pollution by dumping it into water bodies , drains carrying untreated sewerage also result in serious health problems

2.Proper waste management is not done

3.Solid waste create inconvenience when they are not properly managed , in rainy seasons when drains fail to handle water flow solid waste comes on the road

4.Solid waste can cause various diseases if remains on the road , shelter flies,& rodents which are carriers of waterborne diseases like cholera

Q87. Study the diagram & answer these questions

1.Name the state in which this iron & steel plant is located
• Odisha

2.Name the source of coal & iron-ore for this plant
• Coal-Jharia
• Iron ore- Kendujhar

3.Explain the principle on which the plant was setup
• This was setup near the sources of raw materials to
minimize the cost of transporting weight losing raw material

4.Which is the main source of electricity for this plant ?
• Hirakud project

Q88. “India is a land of linguistic diversity” . Support this statement
• According to linguistic survey of India 1928 there were 179 languages & 544 dialects
• In modern India there are 22 scheduled languages & a number of non-scheduled languages
• Hindi speakers have the highest percentage
• Smallest language groups are Sanskrit,Bodo

Q89. “Apart from birth & death migration is another way by which
population size changes” . Justify the statement

• The population size changes due to migration for the following reasons:

  1. When people migrate population changes in the place of origin and the
    place of destination.
  2. The place of origin shows a decrease in population while the population
    increases in the place of destination.
  3. With migration sex ratio changes in the place of origin and destination.
  4. Social and economic transformation takes place in both areas of origin
    and destination.

(Explain any three points in brief)

Q90. How does intermixing of people from diverse cultures due to
migration have positive values?

  1. Intermixing of people from diverse cultures leads to evolution of composite culture
  2. Narrow considerations are broken up & mental horizon of people widens up
  3. Ideas of family planning , girl child education are spread from one
    culture to the other
  4. Creates positive thinking & respect among the people for others

Q91. Study the diagram & answer these questions

  1. During which decade the percentage of decennial growth of urbanization was maximum ?
    • 1981
  2. Explain any two reasons for the regular growth of towns and urban areas.
    • Enlargement of urban centres
    • Emergence of new towns

Q92. Explain any three major factors responsible for the establishment
of Tata Iron and Steel industry in Jamshedpur.

  1. Near to Kolkata port for the export of steel
  2. Close to Mumbai-Kolkata railway line
  3. Subarnarekha & Kharkhai flowing through this area, providing water to the plant
  4. Also coal & iron ore mines are located close to TISCO

Q93. Describe any three features of Konkan railway

  1. It is 760 km long rail route connecting Roha in Maharashtra & Mangalore in Karnataka
  2. Konkan railway a major achievement of Indian railways was constructed in 1998
  3. It crosses 146 rivers, & 2000 bridges
  4. Asia’s largest tunnel also lies on this route
  5. It is an engineering marvel

Q94.Study the diagram & answer these questions

Q1. Which land use category has shown the highest increasing trend ? What percentage in reporting area has increased in that category, during the given period ?
• Area under non-agricultural uses has shown highest increasing trend , 3.2:8.7
Q2. Explain any two reasons responsible for the increasing trend in that category

  1. Expansion of industrial & service sector : explain it in brief
  2. Expansion of area under urban and rural settlements: explain it in brief

Q95. Explain any three major factors responsible for the development
of ‘Bhilai Steel Plant’.

  1. Russian collaboration helped the plant to setup at Chhattisgarh in 1959
  2. It is close to Dalli-rajahara mine , source of iron ore
  3. Korba Thermal station is near to the plant which supply power
  4. Near to Hindustan Shipyard, Vishakhapatnam
  5. Korba,Kargali coal fields are also near to the steel plant

Q96. Study the diagram & answer these questions

1. Which decade has shown the negative trend of growth rate of population?
• 1921
2. Mention any two decades in which the percentage decadal growth has shown regular downward trend
• 1981 & 1991
3. Give two reasons for declining trend in population growth rate
• Fall in birth rate & improved quality of life
• Increase in mean age at marriage

Q97. Study the diagram & answer these questions

1.Mention the source of origin of this canal
• Harike Barrage, Punjab

2.Why is the area to the east of canal under lift irrigation ?
• As it includes the desert areas, by lift irrigation water is lifted up to
make it flow against the slope of the land

3.Explain the economic significance of this canal command area
• Irrigation through this canal lead to increase in cultivated area &
cropping intensity , water intensive crops are also grown now

4.Name any four districts which have been benefitted by the canal
command area
• Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner,Churu, Ganganagar

Q98. Distinguish between flow system & lift system of irrigation

Flow Irrigation SystemLift Irrigation System
1. Water is supplied directly to the soil through channels1. Water is driven towards fields by artificial methods like lifting water through motors
2. 70% of land  of command area is irrigated by flow system2. 30% of land of command area is irrigated by flow system
3. Canals on the right bank of the main canal are flow canals3. Canals of left bank of main canal are lift canals

Q99.Evaluate the Bharatmala Scheme

• It is an umbrella scheme for:

  1. Development of state roads along coastal border areas , connecting
    non-major ports
  2. Backward areas religious & tourist places connectivity programme
  3. Setubharatam Pariyojana for construction of 1500 bridges & 200 rail
  4. District headquarter connectivity scheme for the development of
    9000 km newly declared National Highways
  5. The programme aims to get completed by the year 2022

Q100. ‘In census of India migration is enumnerated on two bases’

1.Place of birth- if the place of birth is different from place of
enumeration , known as lifetime migrant

2.Place of residence- if the place of last residence is different from the
place of enumeration, known as migrant by place of last residence

• From the above points it is clear that in census of India migration is
enumnerated on two bases

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