Q1. Explain with examples the occupational structure of India’s population
• On the basis of economic status India’s population is divided into:

  1. Main Workers: describe in brief
  2. Marginal Workers: describe in brief
  3. Non-Workers: describe in brief

➢As per Census 2011, following is the engagement of population in different sectors

  1. Primary Activities: 54.6%
  2. Secondary activities: 3.8%
  3. Tertiary activities: 41.6%

• Working population divided into:

  1. Agricultural labourers: 54.6%
  2. Household industrial workers: 3.8%
  3. Other workers: 41.6%

• Working population is high in less developed states like Himachal Pradesh as more people are required for subsistence activities
• The proportion of female workers is low in India

Q2. Define the term migration ?Explain any four factors responsible for it
• Migration is movement of people from one place to another either
permanently or temporarily
• Factors responsible for migration:

  1. Push Factors: cause people to leave their place of residence
  2. Pull Factors : attract people from the different locations

• Poverty: Explain in 30-40 words
• Lack of health facilities: Explain in 30-40 words
• Natural disasters: Explain in 30-40 words
• Unemployment: Explain in 30-40 words

Q3. Examine the economic & social consequences of migration in India
• Economic Consequences:

  1. Benefits the region people migrate from , migrants send
    remittances which plays an important role in the lives of poor
  2. Green revolution was successful due to the migration of workers
    from poor rural areas
  3. Unregulated migration leads to overcrowding in cities
  4. Development of slums in the major states like Maharashtra

• Social consequences:

  1. Migrants work as an agent of social change , diffuse new ideas of
    family planning ,girl’s education to rural areas as well
  2. Composite culture is developed which help to break the narrow
    considerations & broaden the mental horizon of people
  3. Creates positive thinking & respect among the people for others
  4. Anonymity increases & creates feeling of dejection among the
  5. Often people get involved in drug abuse, theft & other crimes

Q4.What is human development ?Explain with examples two major
factor which have caused spatial variations in the levels of human development among the major states of India.

• Human development is a process of enlarging the range of people’s
choices , increasing their opportunities for health , education , income
etc. also giving them social & political freedom
• The most important aspect are health , education & providing people
with a decent life
• The two major factors which have caused spatial variations in the
level of human development among the major states of India are:

Level of economic development:

  1. There is a wide difference in the level of economic development of developed
  2. states like Maharashtra ,Tamil Nadu & states like Bihar & Chhattisgarh
  3. Developed states have high HDI & developing states have low HDI


  1. Kerala is able to record the highest value in HDI due to its impressive
  2. performance in achieving 100% literacy
  3. States with low literacy rate like Bihar have low value in HDI
  4. States with high total literacy have less gaps between male & female literacy

Historical reasons:
1. Regions which were developed from historical times like Delhi , Mumbai area mong the developed regions

Q5. The decades of 1921-51 are referred to as the period of steady growth of population while the decades of 1951-81 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India. Explain by giving reasons
• The period between 1921-51 is the second phase of population growth in
• It is referred to as the period of steady population growth
• Reasons:

  1. High birth rate & declining death rate:
  2. Better transport & communication
  3. Improved public distribution system
  4. Improvement in health

• The period between 1951-81 is the third phase of population growth in
• It is referred to as the period of population explosion in India
• Reasons:

  1. Developmental activities by planning process led to economic development further lead to increase in the population
  2. Migration from the neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Bhutan
    was also the big cause for population explosion
  3. Population increased with a growth rate of 2.2% annually
  4. Improvement in standard of living

Q6. Define the term migration .Explain any two economic
consequences & two demographic consequences of migration in India

• Migration refers to the movement of people from one place to
another because of push & pull factors temporarily or permanently
• Economic consequences:

  1. Benefits the region people migrate from , migrants send
    remittances which plays an important role in the lives of poor……explain it further
  2. Unregulated migration leads to overcrowding in cities.. Explain it

• Demographic consequences:

  1. Migration leads to redistribution of population within a country :
    Explain in 20-30 words
  2. Age & skill selective out migration creates imbalance in
    demographic structure of rural areas : explain it further

Q7. “Development in general & human development in
particular is a complex concept used in social science ” . Justify
the statement with suitable arguments

1. Development is a complex concept , it was considered as an
important concept that will achieve all the goals of human life & will address all the socio-cultural & environmental ills of the society

2. Development improved the quality of life , also brought
regional disparities & discriminations

3. Concerned with the issues United Nation Development Programme in its 1993 Human Development report tried to amend these issues

4. People’s participation & security were the major issues in the human Development report 1993 emphasized on progressive democratization & increasing empowerment of people as minimum conditions for human development

5. The objective behind people’s participation is to bring peace &
harmony among human societies

6. Civil societies should also work for reducing military expenditure &
increasing expenditure on health & education

Q8. What is the source of population data in India? Explain population distribution in India
• Census is the source of population data in India , it is conducted after every 10 years
• Population distribution is very uneven in India

  1. 10 Indian states which includes Uttar Pradesh , Maharashtra accounts 76% of the country’s population
  2. States like Jammu & Kashmir ,Arunachal Pradesh have least population
  3. Assam , Haryana, Goa are moderately populated states
  4. Uneven distribution is the result of climate , terrain & availability of water
  5. Evolution of settled agriculture & urbanization are the socio-economics &
    historical factors for uneven population distribution
  6. Population is more in river valleys & plains from historic times & even today

Q9. Explain the cause of male & female migration which is different in India Give the environmental consequences of migration
• Migration is the movement of people from one place to another due to push & pull factors
• Male migration:

  1. The main cause for male migration is work & employment
  2. About 38% of males migrate due to employment

• Female migration

  1. The main cause for female migration is marriage , about 65% women
    migrate after marriage
  2. Meghalaya is an exception where female migration is less as males migrate after marriage

• Environmental Consequences:

  1. Unplanned growth of cities & developmental of illegal settlements
  2. Rural-urban migration leads to overcrowding in cities also put
    pressure on existing social & physical infrastructure
  3. Cities face many environmental problems like pollution, overuse of
    natural resources & improper waste management

Q10. Define ‘Human Development’ Why is it necessary ? Give any four reasons
• Definition of human development
• Human development is necessary because:

1.It helps to create awareness among people towards their responsibilities as a citizen & human being & build their opinion for reduction in military
expenditure & remove all social ills

2.Human development emphasise on more freedom & opportunities to people like giving men & women equal opportunities

3.Human development approach focuses on improving the lives of people rather assuming that economic growth will lead to more opportunities to people

4. Human development makes suitable conditions for all i.e. people &
environment meaning that when people have good health , good education
they will focus more towards the conservation of nature

*In the words of Nobel Laureate Prof. Amartya Sen human development is
important as it build human capabilities in health , education & access to resources

Q11. What is population doubling time ?Explain the characteristics of growth of population in Phase -1 & Phase-2
• Population doubling time is the time taken by population to double itself at its current annual growth rate
• Phase-1 of population growth:

  1. The period is from 1901-1921
  2. Known as the period of stagnant growth of population
  3. During 1911-1921 it even recorded negative population growth rate
  4. Rate of population increase was low due to high births & high deaths
  5. Health & medical services were poor & public distribution system was

• Phase-2 of population growth

  1. Period from 1921-1951
  2. Known as the period of steady population growth
  3. Improvement in health & sanitation brought down the mortality rate
  4. Better transport system led to improvement in public distribution system
  5. Birth rate was high as compared to phase-1

Q12.How is migration response to the uneven distribution of
opportunities over space ?Explain the economic consequences of migration

• In India many people from rural areas migrate to urban areas as more
opportunities are available in urban areas
• People move away from a place of low opportunity & less safety to a
place with more opportunities & safety
• Creates both benefits & problems for the areas people migrate to ,
people migrate from
• Economic Consequences:

  1. Benefits the region people migrate from , migrants send
    remittances which plays an important role in the lives of poor
  2. Green revolution was successful due to the migration of workers
    from poor rural areas
  3. Unregulated migration leads to overcrowding in cities
  4. Development of slums in the major states like Maharashtra

Q13. What is density of population ? Describe the spatial variation of population density in India
• Density of population refers to number of persons per unit area , it helps to understand the distribution of population over earth surface
• Spatial variation of density is uneven in India:

1.State wise it is lowest in Arunachal Pradesh (17 persons per & highest in Bihar (1102)

2.Northern states have high density & region wise it is highest in NCT Delhi
(11297 persons per

3.Kerala & Tamil Nadu have highest population densities among the southern states

4.Hilly states of India & north eastern states except for Assam have low population densities

5.States like Haryana & Punjab have moderate densities

Q14. Give any five push factors responsible for the migration of population in India
• Push factors force people to leave their place of origin & migrate to other
• Push factors:

  1. Poverty & hunger- explain in brief
  2. Political disturbances-explain in brief
  3. Environmental problems- explain in brief
  4. Exhaustion of natural resources in a region- explain in brief
  5. Natural disasters: explain in brief

Q15. “An uneven distribution of population suggests a close relationship between population , physical & socio-economic factors ” Explain with suitable examples
• Population distribution in India is very uneven this is because of physical, socioeconomic factors which affects population distribution
• Physical factors:

1.Plains : people prefer to live in plains , Indo-Gangetic Brahmaputra plain is densely populated

2.Water : an important factor for population distribution most of the civilisations were setup near the source of water

3.Climate: people prefer to have moderate type of climate that’s why coastal
plains have high population

4.Natural Resources: attract people to live & develop their livelihood

• Socio-economic factors:

1.Settled agriculture , pattern of human settlement attract human beings for
example, northern plains of India have high population density

2.Urbanisation & industrialization too attracts people , like people move to
Delhi , Mumbai , Chennai etc.

3.Transportation is also a factor which influence population distribution
people prefer to live in those areas where transport network is well developed

4.Presence of minerals attract industries & in turn attracts labour which affects population distribution like North-eastern plateau is rich in minerals

Q16. “Land use in a region to a large extent is influenced by the nature
of economic activities carried out in that region “Support the statement
by giving three examples from India

• The three types of changes that affect the land use in a region are:

  1. Size of economy :explain in detail
  2. Composition of economy :explain in detail
  3. Increasing pressure on land: explain in detail

Q17.Explain any three factors responsible for the depletion of water resources. Examine any two legislative measures for controlling water pollution in India
• Three factors responsible for the depletion of water resources are:

  1. Increasing population: explain in brief
  2. Industrialisation:explain in brief
  3. Overuse of groundwater:explain in brief

• Government took steps to control water pollution in India , the legislative
provisions are:

  1. Water (Prevention & control of water pollution) ,Act 1974
  2. Environment Protection Act,1986

These acts were not successful due to establishment of polluting industries during their implementation, these acts also failed to create awareness for water conservation among people .

*Public participation is the key to make the water programmes effective ,
government’s current Jal shakti mission to conserve water can only be successful with the cooperation of people

Q18. Analyse any five major problems of Indian agriculture

  1. Dependence on erratic monsoon: explain in 20-30 words
  2. Lack of land reforms : explain in 20-30 words
  3. Low productivity: explain in 20-30 words
  4. Constraint of financial resources & indebtedness: explain in 20-30 words
  5. Small farm size & fragmented land holdings: explain in 20-30 words

Q19. What is the use of manganese ?Describe the state wise distribution of manganese
• Use:

  1. Used as a raw material in iron & steel industry for smelting of iron ore
  2. Used in manufacturing of ferro-alloys

• Statewise distribution of manganese

1.Odisha- it is the largest producer of manganese in India , important mine is located in Koraput

2.Karnataka- also known for manganese production , important mines are in Dharwar & Shimoga

3.Maharashtra- mines are located away from iron & steel plants which tends to be disadvantageous , important mine is located in Nagpur

4.Madhya Pradesh- It is also a good producer of manganese, important mine is located in Balaghat

5. Other producers are Goa, Andhra Pradesh

Q20.How the small size of landholdings and degradation of cultivable land two major problems of Indian agriculture ? Explain both of these problems with examples
• Small size of landholdings:

  1. In India there are small & marginal farmers , about 60% land holdings are small than one hectare ,40% are smaller than 0.5 hectare
  2. Small & fragmented landholdings are less productive as large outputs can’t be used
  3. Land consolidation has not been successful in many states and in some
    states second land consolidation is required
  4. Lands are divided between the owners of next generation , small sized lands are uneconomic
  5. The average size of farm is becoming smaller every year due to expanding population

• Degradation of cultivable land:

  1. Natural fertilization processes of soil like nitrogen fixation by cultivation of leguminous crops are not adopted due to the displacement of legume crops with the commercial crops
  2. Unregulated & over irrigation has led to alkanisation , salinization & water logging
  3. Intensive use of chemicals have resulted in degradation of cultivable land . It has deteriorated the soil fertility
  4. Rainfed areas in humid areas experience natural degradation like soil erosion & wind erosion
  5. Human activities like shifting cultivation ,deforestation are more responsible for land degradation than natural processes

Q21.Classify minerals into two groups on the basis of chemical &
physical properties & give one example of minerals of each group .Mention any two features of the three minerals belts of India

• On the basis of physical & chemical properties minerals can be
classified into :

1.Metallic minerals-
▪ These minerals are rich in metals like copper , iron etc.
▪ Two types of metallic minerals are ferrous & non-ferrous
▪ Ferrous minerals have iron content like iron ore
▪ Non-ferrous minerals do not have iron content like copper

2.Non-metallic minerals-
▪ These are organic like fossil fuels (coal,petroleum)
▪ Also, these are inorganic like mica,limestone

• Features of mineral belts:
1.North-Eastern Plateau Region:

  • Covers Chhottanagpur, Odisha plateau , West Bengal & Chhattisgarh
  • Major iron & steel industries are located here
  • Minerals found:- Iron, Coal, Bauxite & Manganese

2.South-Western Plateau Region:

  • Covers Karnataka , Goa, Kerala & uplands of Tamil Nadu
  • Rich in ferrous metals & bauxite; high grade iron ore & limestone
  • Kerala has monazite & thorium deposits , Goa has rich iron ore deposits

3.North-Western Region

  • Extends along Aravalli & parts of Gujarat
  • Minerals found are associated with Dharwar rock system
  • Gujarat is rich in petroleum deposits

Q22.’Erratic Monsoon’ & ‘Indebtedness’ are the major problems of Indian agriculture .Suggest & explain the measures to overcome these problems
• Suggestions for erratic monsoon:

  1. Nature of monsoon is very erratic in India
  2. Only 33% of the cultivated area is under irrigation
  3. There should be more focus on developing various means of irrigation especially in unirrigated areas
  4. Rain water harvesting should be made compulsory to prevent depletion of groundwater table
  5. Water disputes between states should be solved with equal division of water
  6. Government should develop artificial rain technology for the areas where irrigation is not possible

* Technological innovation needs to be done so that we can use sea water for irrigation & other uses

• Suggestions for Indebtedness

  1. Rural banks should provide credit at low interest rate to the farmers
  2. Cooperative credit societies should be setup for the benefit of farmers
  3. Profit making activities like bee keeping, floriculture should be done along with agriculture
  4. Minimum Support Price should be increased , so that farmers get good money for their harvest
  5. To avoid crop failure water intensive crops should be grown in the areas with high moisture & drought resistant crops should be grown in areas with less rainfall
  6. Government should subsidise the farming inputs for small & marginal farmers

Q23. Why do large scale industries choose different locations ?Explain
any four factors which influence the industrial location

• Large scale industries choose different locations to minimize the cost of production & earn more profit
• Factors which affect the industrial location are:

1. Raw materials: Important factor for the location of heavy industries
like iron & steel industry which use weight losing raw material like
coal & iron thus located near the sources of raw material , many
iron & steel plants in India are located in the Chhottanagpur plateau
due to presence of iron ore mines & coalfields

2. Market: Market oriented industries like textiles are located near the
market so that they can be sold easily, these industries produce
according to the demand of market , many industries in Gurugram-Delhi industrial region are market oriented

3. Transport: Industries prefer the areas which have better transport
network like roads, railways so that they can transport their product
to the market at low cost, major industries in India are located in
the cities with good transport network like Delhi & Mumbai

4. Power: It is the key factor for the location of heavy power using
industries like aluminium industry this is the reason most of the
aluminum industries are located near sources of power

Q24. Fragmentation of land holdings & degradation of cultivable land are the serious problems of Indian agriculture . Suggest & explain measures to solve these problems
• Suggestions for fragmentation of landholdings :

  1. Pressure of population on land should be reduced
  2. Government should carry out land consolidation regularly after a specific period of time
  3. Areas which are lying waste should be reclaimed & made fit for cultivation
  4. Co-operative farming by pooling in land as well can be a good solution for this problem also it will make farming a profitable business
  5. Government should come up with some policy to stop the division of
    landholdings among owners of new generations

• Suggestions for degradation of cultivable land

  1. Crop rotation should be practiced so that soil doesn’t loose fertility
  2. Contour farming, terrace farming ,strip farming should be practiced to avoid soil erosion
  3. Modern & scientific methods of irrigation should be used to prevent waterlogging
  4. Traditional methods like drip irrigation can also avoid land degradation
  5. Farmers should be made aware about the ideal quantity of chemicals to be used in fields
  6. Government schemes like Soil health scheme should be implemented effectively

Q25. Mention any four major objectives of the New Industrial Policy
1991.Describe the role of globalization in achieving these objectives

• Four major objectives of New industrial policy:

1. Attain international competitiveness: This was done by opening market for foreign manufacturers , main aim was to improve domestic product quality

2. Correct the weakness that have crept in: Old economic policy had many
weaknesses which were removed by new economic policy

3. Maintain a sustained growth in productivity & gainful employment : New
Industrial policy increased the productivity & also opened up
employment opportunities by allowing foreign companies to setup

4. Build on the gains already made: new industrial policy was
introduced to build on the gains already made by old economic
policy like contribution of industrial sector was increased by old
economic policy now the target was to attain more growth

• Role of globalization in achieving these objectives:

1.Carrying out massive import liberalization programme: quantitative
restrictions were switched to tarrifs & then import duties were

2.Opening of the economy: Foreign direct investment was opened ,
facilities were provided to foreign companies so they can invest in

3. Removing restrictions to the entry of multi national companies:
restrictions were removed , now MNC’s could setup in India also
government provided them subsidies

4. Indian companies were allowed to enter into foreign collaboration
in India : Government also encouraged the Indian companies to
setup joint ventures abroad

5. Exchange rate was adjusted to promote export

Q26. Explain the importance of food grains in the Indian agriculture economy Describe any three characteristics of rice cultivation
• Food grains occupy two third of total cropped area of the country
• Dominates both subsistence & commercial farming all over India
• Food grains can be classified into cereals & pulses on the basis of structure
• Characteristics of rice cultivation:

  1. Rice is staple food for majority of population
  2. Rice is a crop of tropical humid areas has 3,000 varieties
  3. Three crops of rice ‘aus’ ‘aman’ ‘boro’ are grown in West Bengal
  4. West Bengal is the leading producer of rice in India
  5. Green revolution led to high production of rice

Q27.Give a brief account on the two stages of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Project Indira Gandhi Canal command Area Project
▪ This project was launched in 1958, canal originates from Harike Barrage in Punjab
▪ This project has benefitted the region both positively & negatively
• Stage-1 of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area

  1. Lies in Ganganagar, Hanumangarh
  2. It has gently undulating topography
  3. Irrigation system was introduced in early 1960s
  4. The command area is about 5.5 hectare

• Stage-2 of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area:

  1. Covers an area of 14.1 lakh hectare of Jaisalmer, Churu & Barmer
  2. Desert land with sandunes are covered in this stage
  3. The temperature is near about 50° C in summers
  4. Irrigation began in mid 1980s

Q28.’Low productivity is one of the major problem of Indian agriculture ‘ Suggest & explain measure to overcome this problem
• To overcome the problem of low productivity, following measures can be

  1. Crop rotation , intercropping should be practiced so that soil retain its fertility & produce more crops
  2. Credit facilities should be provided to small farmers so that they can also
    contribute in crop cultivation
  3. Soil testing should be done regularly to avoid crop failure
  4. Government should start another green revolution to increase crop
  5. Better seeds, inputs should be provided at cheap rates to farmers
  6. Technological innovations should be done like development of farming machines

Q29. Development is a multi-dimensional concept & signifies the positive,irreversible transformation of the economy ,society & environment .Support the statement with suitable arguments from India
• Development is a dynamic concept that describe the state of societies & changes experienced by them
• Process of human environment interaction depend upon the level of technology
• Increasing pace of human environment interaction has accelerated technological progress
• After the World War 2 development was synonymous to economic growth measured in GDP
• But many countries with high GDP experienced rapid poverty because of its unequal distribution
• In 1970s redistribution with growth ,equity were included in the definition of development
• Later it was realized that development can’t be restricted to economic well being only so other aspects like health, education, political & civil rights were also included in the definition of development
• Hence, the concept of development has become multi-dimensional & stands for positive , irreversible , transformation of the economy , society & environment

Q30. Define ‘Cropping intensity’ Describe the three cropping seasons in India
• Cropping intensity means raising of a number of crops from the same field during one agricultural year
• Cropping intensity in India is important for fuller utilization of land resource also help in reduction of rural unemployment

➢Following are the cropping seasons in India-
• Kharif

  1. Starts with the onset of South-West Monsoon (June-September)
  2. Crops cultivated- Rice, cotton , Jowar etc.

• Rabi

  1. Rabi season starts with the onset of winter(October-March)
  2. Crops cultivated- Wheat , gram ,mustard etc.

• Zaid

  1. It is a short season between rabi & kharif season (April-June)
  2. Crops cultivated- Watermelons, Cucumbers etc.

Q31. Describe five main points of the Integrated Tribal development project implemented in Bharmaur region
• Bharmaur was designated as an Integrated Tribal development project in 1974
• The main objective was to improve the life quality of local inhabitant (Gaddis) & narrow the development gap between Bharmaur & other districts of Himachal Pradesh
• This plan laid highest priority on development of transport & communication , agriculture & allied activities
• Improvement in basic facilities like school,health,drinking water
• Holi & Khani areas are the main beneficiaries while Tundah & Kugti areas lack in infrastructure
• Social benefits include rapid increase in literacy rate, improvement in sex ratio etc.
• Gaddis have started to cultivate commercial crops along with subsistence crops

Q32. How is Indian Railways contributing to the growth of economy ?Explain with examples
• India has one of the longest railway network in the world , divided into 16 zones
• Called as the lifeline of the country it is involved in the movement of both
passengers & freight contributing to economic development as well
• Development in economic sectors has led to high demand for railways as it carries goods & services to long distances in short period of time
• Railways provides employment to a large number of people thus contributing to GDP growth
• Indian railways is the mineral carrier & backbone of industrial sector provide minerals to all industries across India
• Connects raw material producing areas with industrial regions
• Also contribute in tourism sector by connecting hill stations, religious places & other tourist attractions
• Government of India is making continuous efforts to connect all regions with the railways , Bharatmala Pariyojana has been launched for the same

Q33. Explain any five measures for the promotion of sustainable development in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area

1.Strict implementation of water management policy is required , protective irrigation is required in Stage-1 & extensive irrigation is required in Stage-2

2. Plantation crops like citrus fruits should be grown instead of water intensive ,cropping pattern should not be disturbed

3. To reduce the leakage loss of water CAD programmes like lining of water
courses , warabandi system should be implemented

4. Areas affected by soil salinity & waterlogging should be reclaimed

5. The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation is necessary for sustainable development

Q34. What is the importance of air transport ?Give any four
characteristics of air transport in India

• Importance:

  1. Facilitates the fastest movement of good & passengers from one
    place to another
  2. It has reduced distances by minimizing travel time
  3. Essential for India , distances are large & climate is uneven
  4. Also helps to link India with other foreign countries

• Characteristics:

1.In India Air transport began in 1911 , between Allahabad & Naini

2. Air transport was nationalized in 1953 , Air India International & Indian were formed

3. The Airport Authority of India is responsible for providing safe, efficient air traffic

4. The air transport is managed by Air India along with many private companies like Indigo Air India provides international air services for both passenger & cargo traffic

5. Pawan Hans helicopter services are also very popular in north-eastern states also provide services to tourist & petroleum sector

Q35. “Hill Area Development Programme in India were drawn keeping in view their topographical , ecological , social & economic conditions” Support this statement with suitable explanation
1. Hill area development programme were initiated during the fifth five year plan covering the hilly regions

2. National Committee on development of backward area in 1981 recommended that all the hill areas with height above 600m & not covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as backward hill areas

3. The main objectives of these programmes was to harness the indigenous resources of the hills by developing the following activities:

  • Poultry
  • Animal Husbandry
  • Small scale & village industry
  • Forestry
  • Plantation Agriculture

*From the above points we can say Hill Area Development Programme in India were drawn keeping in view their topographical , ecological , social & economic conditions

Q36. Why is the distribution of roads not uniform in India ? Explain with examples
• Level of economic development & nature of terrain are the two important
factors responsible for the non-uniform road density in India
• Road density is lowest 12.14 km/100 in Jammu& Kashmir, highest
517.7 km/100 in Kerala
• Construction of roads is difficult in hilly regions while it is easy to construct roads in plains this is the reason Indi-Gangetic Plain has high density of roads
• Thick forests, inaccessible areas are the main reasons for low road density
in north-eastern states
• Urbanisation & Industrialisation also affects the road distribution,
Maharashtra & other developed states have high road density as compared to developing states
• Road quality is better in urban areas than rural areas

Q37. Describe in brief the changing nature of export items in the international trade of India
• Share of agricultural products like coffee, cashew has declined in int’l trade due to international competition
• Share of petroleum & crude products has increased due to rise in petroleum process & expansion of refineries
• India’s main competitors: China & E-Asian countries
• Manufacturing sector accounted for 73% of India’s total value of export in 2016- 17
• Engineering goods have shown growth in the export along with floricultural products & marine products, fruits
• A larger share of India’s foreign trade is contributed by jewellery & gems

Q38. What is the importance of water transport? Describe in brief
water transport system of India.

• Importance:

  1. Provide cheapest transport facilities for heavy & bulky cargo
  2. As friction of water is less than land, it is fuel efficient & ecofriendly
  3. Waterways is an important mode of transport for freight &

• Water transport systems in India:

Inland waterways:
➢Chief mode of transport before advent of railway
➢Faced tough competition from road & railway transport
➢Diversion of river water for irrigation made them non-navigable in large parts
➢Contributes only 1% to country’s transport
➢Comprises rivers, canals, backwaters & creeks
➢Inland Waterways Authority, setup in 1986 responsible for
development & regulation of National waterways

Oceanic Routes:
➢India has coastline of 7,517 km, which facilitates the water
➢ There are 12 major & 185 minor ports provide infrastructural
support to oceanic routes
➢Play important role in transport sector of India
➢95% of India’s trade by volume & 70% by value moves through
oceanic routes
➢Also used for transport between islands & rest of the country

Q39. “Despite the setback caused by the partition .Indian ports continued to grow after the Independence “Support the statement with examples

1.Indian ports were the major means of transport during the British period ,
they used the ports to loot the resources of India

2. India faced a huge loss after British left the country partitioned ,Karachi
port went to Pakistan & Chittagong port went to Bangladesh

3. To compensate the losses Kandla port was built in Gujarat & Diamond
harbor in West Bengal & these were successful to recover the loss

4. Today large volume of trade is done through the Indian ports

5. The major ports are equipped with modern infrastructure facilities

6. Today many ports are managed by private entrepreneurs & they are
modernizing these ports

7. At present there are 12 major & 185 minor ports in India

Q40. Examine the role of Inland Waterways Authority of India

1. Inland Waterways Authority was setup in 1986 is responsible for
development & regulation of national waterways in the country

2. It has identified 10 other inland waterways which could be upgraded

3. It survey the new projects also advices the central government on the
issues related to inland waterways

4. The Authority primarily undertakes projects for development and
maintenance of Inland Waterways infrastructure through grant received
from Ministry of Shipping.

5. Its headquarters are located in Noida ,Uttar Pradesh

Q41. Give any five features of changing patterns of the composition of India’s import
• During 1950-1960 India faced food shortage & imported food grain, capital
goods & machinery
• BOP was low, because imports were more than exports
• Due to green revolution food grain import declined & in 1970s it was
replaced by petrol & fertilizers
• There was a rise in petroleum import due to rise in industrialization &
better standard of living
• Petroleum is used as fuel & industrial raw material regular price rise in int’l market is also reason for higher petroleum import
• Import of capital goods like transport equipment, machine tools etc. has
increased steadily
• Other major imports: Gold, non-ferrous metals, electronic goods

Q42. Which is the apex body in India to improve the quality of national
highways ?examine the significance of national highways

• National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) the apex body in India to
improve the quality of national highways
• Significance of national highways:

  1. These are the main roads constructed & maintained by central govt.
  2. Meant for inter state transport, connect state capitals major cities &
  3. National highways are significant ,used for movement of defense
    material in strategic areas
  4. National Highways constitute 2% of the total road network , carries 40%
    of road traffic

Q43. Define the term road density .Explain with examples two main
determinants of road density in India

• Road density- length of roads per 100 of area
• Two main determinants of road density in India are:

  1. Nature of terrain- explain in about 50-60 words
  2. Level of economic development- explain in about 50-60 words

Q44. Explain the Swachh Bharat Mission launched by government of India
• Launched in 2014 , by the government of India to address the issues of health hazards caused by release of toxic & non-biodegradable wastes ,open defecation
• Healthy mind lives in a healthy body and for a healthy body clean environment is necessary
• Industrial effluents, municipal waste are the main sources of pollution in urban areas , open defecation in rural areas
• Objectives of SBM:

  1. Making India open defecation free & achieving 100% scientific municipal
    waste management
  2. Providing potable drinking water to every household to control
    spread of water-borne diseases
  3. Promoting use of non-conventional energy resources like wind &
    solar energy
  4. Construction of individual household latrines & community toilets
  • On 2nd October 2019, 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi our
    Prime minister declared a India open defecation free as an objective of SBM

Q45. Examine the mission launched by the government to promote cities with core infrastructure.
• The smart cities mission was launched by PM Modi in 2015
• The cities which use appropriate technology for improving life quality of citizens are known as the smart cities
• The main objective of this mission is to promote cities that provide core
infrastructure ,clean sustainable environment ,& give decent quality of life to citizens
• Feature is to apply smart solutions to infrastructure & services to make them better like making areas less vulnerable to disasters
• Focus is on sustainable & inclusive development & to create a replicable model which act as lighthouse to other cities

*Smart cities are sites where urban renaissance of India will be envisioned & executed

*Government aims that by 75th year of Independence i.e. 2022 India’s cities
should have scientifically planned & designed settlements providing spacious ,safe environment to live, work & play

*In new urban India every Indian should get fruitful occupation , livelihood & selffulfillment ,this can be the model of sustainable urbanism India can offer to world

Q46. Explain the Jal Kranti Abhiyan.
• Water is a recyclable source but limited & the gap between its supply &
demand is widening
• Climate change at global level has created water stress conditions in many areas
• In India there is rapid population growth & economic development which
demands water in large quantity
• Jal Kranti Abhiyan was launched by the government of India in 2015-16
• The main aim was to ensure water security through per capita availability of water in the country
• It aims to include local bodies ,NGOs & citizens to create awareness of the

• Proposals under Jal Kranti Abhiyan

  1. Selection of one water stressed village in each 672 districts of the
    country to create a Jal Gram
  2. Identification of model command area of about 1000 hectares in
    different parts of the country
  3. Abatement of pollution by water conservation, reduction in ground
    water pollution & construction of arsenic free wells
  4. Creating mass awareness through social media, TV ,print etc.

*Jal Kranti Abhiyan is designed to provide livelihood & food security
through water security

Q47. Highlight the India’s National Water policy launched in 2002
• National water policy specify water allocation priorities in the following order: drinking water,irrigation,hydro-power,navigation,industrial & other uses
• Features:

  1. The first priority is to provide drinking water to all human beings & animals
  2. Regulation of groundwater exploitation
  3. Irrigation & multi-purpose projects should include drinking water component where there is no alternative source of drinking water
  4. Surface & Groundwater should be regularly monitored for quality
  5. Awareness should be spread regarding water scarcity
  6. Conservation should be promoted through education,incentives,regulation

Q48. Describe the Bharatmala Scheme
• It is an umbrella scheme for:

  1. Development of state roads along coastal border areas , connecting non major ports
  2. Backward areas religious & tourist places connectivity programme
  3. Setubharatam Pariyojana for construction of 1500 bridges & 200 rail bridges
  4. District headquarter connectivity scheme for the development of 9000 km newly declared National Highways
  5. The programme aims to get completed by the year 2022

Q49. Evaluate the Namami Gange Programme
• To improve the condition of river Ganga ‘National Mission for clean Ganga’ was initiated, Namami gange programme has been launched for the same
• Objectives:

  1. Development of sewerage treatment systems in towns
  2. Development of river front
  3. Afforestation along the river bank to increase biodiversity
  4. Cleaning of the river
  5. Development of Ganga Grams in Uttarakhand, UP , West Bengal etc.
  6. Creating awareness among masses to stop addition of pollutants
  7. Monitoring Industrial affluent

*(ANY 5)

Q50. ‘India has one of the largest road-network in the world’ Examine this statement
• India has one of the largest road network in the world with total length
of over 42 lakh km
• 85% of passengers & 70% of freight is carried by roads
• Roads are concentrated in urban areas ,rural areas & border areas
• Construction of Golden Quadrilateral & N-S, E-W corridor
• Many super expressways have been built
• Under Pradhan Mantri Sadak Yojana all villages are connected with all
weather roads

Q51.”The non-conventional sources of energy will provide more sustained & environmental friendly energy “ Examine this statement
• Non conventional sources of energy are the only sustainable sources of energy
• They are renewable sources like wind energy , solar energy & geothermal energy
• These energy sources are more equitably distributed like solar energy can be harnessed in any part of the country where there is sunlight
• They will provide eco-friendly , cheaper energy after the initial cost is taken care of
• They can be used in a long run as they are renewable & environment friendly
(Explain any five points in brief)

Q52. Explain with examples how modern agricultural technology has brought a significant increase in agricultural output of India

  1. Production & yield of many crops like rice & wheat have increased
  2. Expansion in irrigation has provided basis for modern agricultural technology like HYV seeds ,chemical fertilizers
  3. Consumption of fertilizers have been increased significantly since the green revolution
  4. As the HYV’sare prone to pests use of pesticides , hence the use of pesticides has increased
  5. India ranked first in the production of Jute & Pulses
    (Explain the above points in brief)

Q53.’Border Road Organisation’ is an apex body for the development of
roads ’. Anlayse this statement

• Border Road organization was established in 1960 , is an apex body for the development of roads in border areas
• Accelerates economic development in frontier areas
• Strengthens defence preparedness
• Promote harmonious international relations with neighbouring countries like Tibet & Bhutan
• Provide better connectivity for people living in the remote areas
• Also undertakes snow clearance in high altitude areas

Q54. Mention the steps taken to improve the quality & performance of
Indian Railways

  1. Conversion of gauges from narrow & meter to broad gauge
  2. Introduction of metro railways has helped in the movement of people within a city
  3. Electrification of railway network
  4. Increase in the speed & haulage capacity
  5. Konkan railway is the major achievement of Indian railways on west coast
  6. Computerisation of reservation
  7. Improvement in station & junction environment

Q55. Compare Mumbai & Kolkata sea ports on the basis of location , hinterland & significance in world trade (1+1+3)
• Mumbai Port

1. Location

  • Natural harbour & biggest sea port of India, located in Maharashtra

2. Hinterland

  • Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat

3. Significance

Links major ports of the world

  • Gateway to the western world
  • 20 km long & has country’s largest oil terminal

• Kolkata Port

1. Location

  • Located on Hugli river in West Bengal

2. Hinterland

  • Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand ,West Bengal

3. Significance

  • Gateway to eastern world
  • Extends port facilities to neighbouring countries like Bhutan & Nepal
  • Had the initial advantage of being the capital of British India

Q56. “India has undergone major changes within the economy over the last five decades and this has influenced the land-use changes in the country.” Support the statement with examples.
1. India has undergone major changes within the economy over the last five decades and this has influenced the land-use changes in the country , decline in one category leads to increase in another category

2.Rate of increase is highest in area under non-agricultural uses due to changing nature of economy, expansion of area under rural & urban settlements

3. Increase in the share under forest is due to increase in demarcated area rather than actual increase in forest cover

4. Increase in net sown area is due to use of culturable wasteland for agricultural purposes

5. Barren wasteland ,culturable wasteland , area under pastures & tree crops & fallow lands have registered a decline due to increasing pressure on land (because of rise in population) & illegal encroachments

Q57.Explain any five favourable factors responsible for the development of ‘Mumbai-Pune’ industrial region

  1. Cotton textile industry in Mumbai was the main cause of development
  2. Suez Canal opened in 1869 contributed in growth of Mumbai port
  3. With cotton textile industry ,drilling stations like Mumbai High ,nuclear
    plants also developed
  4. Engineering & transport goods were produced & exported
  5. Import of machines was possible through this port
  6. Development of hydroelectricity in western region
  7. Establishment of Mumbai high refinery attracted other industries to setup here

Q58.Describe the required geographical condition & areas of production of sugarcane
• Geographical factors:

  1. Sugarcane is crop of tropical areas
  2. It is cultivated in humid & sub-humid climate
  3. Largely an irrigated crop in India

• Areas of Production

  1. Cultivation is concentrated in Uttar Pradesh that’s why it is the leading
    sugarcane producing state
  2. Maharashtra & Gujarat are also the major sugarcane cultivators
  3. In southern India it is cultivated in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu etc.
  4. Sugarcane yield is low in northern India

*India is the second largest producer of sugarcane after Brazil

Q59. Why is water conservation essential in India? Explain any three different methods of water conservation with examples (2+3)
• Water conservation is essential in India as the demand is increasing for water & its supply is shrinking
• Also, India can’t afford to use sea/ocean water due to high cost of

• Methods:

  1. Rainwater Harvesting : explain in brief
  2. Watershed development : explain in brief
  3. Water recycling & reuse : explain in brief
  4. Storing surface water can also help to avoid water scarcity: explain in brief

Q60. How do human beings pollute water through industrial &
agricultural activities ? (2.5+2.5)
• Human beings pollute water through industrial activities:

  1. Industries produce several undesirable products including industrial
    wastes , polluted waste water ,chemicals etc.
  2. Most of the industrial waste is disposed off in running water or lakes
  3. Consequently poisonous elements reach the rivers & reservoirs
    which harm the aquatic & other life forms
  4. Major water polluting industries- leather , pulp & paper , chemicals

• Human beings pollute water by agricultural activities:

  1. Various types of chemicals used in modern agriculture like inorganic
    fertilisers ,pesticides are the pollution generating components
  2. These chemicals are washed down to rivers ,lakes & tanks
  3. These chemicals infiltrate the soil to reach the ground water
  4. Fertiliser induces & increase the nitrate content of the surface water

Q61. Describe the priorities which have been outlined by UNDP as part
of its Urban strategy ?

• The United Nation Development Programme has outlined the
following priorities as part of its urban strategy:

  1. Increasing shelter for urban poor
  2. Provision of basic urban services like education, primary health care, clean water & sanitation
  3. Reducing air pollution
  4. Upgrading Energy use & alternative transport systems
  5. Improving women’s access to basic services & government facilities

Q62. Why is the quality of water deteriorating in India? Explain with examples
• Water is an important natural resource for plants & animals .
• Only 3 % of surface water is fresh , out of which only 1% can be used by humans and animals.
• The quality of water is pure when there is no foreign substance found in the water bodies.
• The quality of water is deteriorating in India, as the industries in India are
increasing, water pollution has also increased due to the disposal of waste
materials into the water bodies.
• Because of agricultural activities a large quantities of insecticides, pesticides and fertilizers are found in the water bodies, degrade land & deteriorate water quality
• The improper sewage system in the urban areas and makes water unhygienic and unsafe to use.
• In India Yamuna and Ganga are the most polluted rivers due to the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities

Q63. Nuclear energy is replacing the conventional sources in India. Do you think it is a viable source of energy in future keeping in view the availability of nuclear minerals in India
• Nuclear energy is a viable source as large quantities of energy can be generated by joining(fusion) & splitting(fission) with less quantity of minerals
• Important minerals used for the generation of nuclear energy are Uranium and Thorium.
• Uranium deposits occur in Dharwar rocks. It is found in several locations along the Singhbhum copper belt
• Thorium is mainly obtained from the monazite and limonite in Kerala (World’s richest monazite deposits)
• Atomic energy commission was established in 1948.
• The important nuclear power projects are Tarapur (Maharashtra) Rawatbhata (Rajasthan)
• Collaboration with France, Germany, USA etc. in developing the required
technology is a positive step in this direction

Q64. Which are the major regions of the world having a dense network of airways?
• In Northern Hemisphere there is a distinct east-west belt of intercontinental air routes
• Dense network of airways exists in Eastern USA, Western Europe and
South East Asia.
• USA alone accounts for 60% of the world airways.
• New York, London, Mumbai etc. are the nodal points where air route coverage is maximum.
• Africa ,South America lack air services due to sparser population &
limited economic development

Q65. ‘Beti-Bachao-Beti Padhao’ is a social campaign launched by the
government to promote gender sensitivity. Explain this statement

• Launched in 2014, promotes gender sensitivity& acknowledge adverse
impacts of gender discrimination.
• Government of India has introduced the Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (BBBP)
scheme for survival, protection & education of the girl child.
• Division of society is believed to be biological & natural ,it become basis of
social differences.
• Exclusion of half of the population hinders growth of society.
• UNDP acknowledged that “If development is not engendered it is
• Aims to address the issue of declining Child Sex Ratio

Q66. Development is a substantative concept & once achieved will
address all the socio-cultural & environmental ills of the society Analyse this statement

1. Development was considered as a basic concept & it was thought that
once achieved will address all the socio-cultural & environmental ills
of the society

2.Development improved the quality of life , also brought regional
disparities & discriminations

3. Concerned with the issues United Nation Development Programme in
its 1993 Human Development report tried to amend these issues

4. People’s participation & security were the major issues in the human
Development report 1993 emphasized on progressive democratization & increasing empowerment of people as minimum conditions for human development

5. The objective behind people’s participation is to bring peace &
harmony among human societies

6. Civil societies should also work for reducing military expenditure &
increasing expenditure on health & education

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