GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
- Growth & Development refer to changes over a period of time.
- Growth is quantitative, development is qualitative.
- Growth can be +ve or –ve but development is always positive.
- Development occurs when there is positive change in quality.
- Earlier level of development was measured in terms of country’s economic growth.
- Quality of life, opportunities, freedom are important aspects of development.
CONCEPT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
- Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq & Prof. Amartya sen spelt out important aspects of human development.
- Concept of human development :- Dr. Mahbub-ul-haq
- Human development according to Dr. haq:- Development that enlarges people’s choices and improves their lives, people are central to all development
DR. HAQ & PROF. SEN
- Worked together to bring out the initial human development reports.
- DR. haq created human development index in 1990.
- UNDP used his concept of human development to publish human development report since 1990.
- Prof. sen saw an increase in freedom as the main objective of development.
ASPECTS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
- Key aspects of human development are:- health, education , access to resources.
- Due to inability to acquire knowledge, material poverty, social discrimination, inefficiency of institutions people do not have capability and freedom to make basic choices
THE 4 PILLARS:-
- Idea of human development is supported by :-
- EQUITY:-making equal access to opportunities available for everybody irrespective of gender caste, race, income.
- SUSTAINABILITY:- means continuity in availability of opportunities each generation must have same opportunities.
- Productivity:- means human labour productivity, in terms of work, productivity must be enriched by building capabilities in people.
- EMPOWERMENT:- means power to make choices, comes from increasing freedom and capability, good governance, people oriented policies are required to empower people.
APPROACHES TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
- INCOME APPROACH:-
- Oldest approach to human development.
- Human development is seen linked with income.
- Says level of income reflects level of freedom an individual enjoys.
- Looks human beings as beneficiaries to all developmental activities.
- Lays emphasis on higher govt. expenditure on education, health, other basic amenities.
- People are not participants in development only recipients
- Govt. is responsible for increasing levels of human development by maximizing expenditure on welfare activities.
3. BASIC NEEDS APPROACH:-
- Proposed by ILO( International labour organization)
- Lays emphasis on six basic needs i.e. health, sanitation, education, food , water, housing.
- Human choices are ignored.
4. CAPABILITY APPROACH:-
- Associated with prof Amartya sen
- Says building human capabilities in areas of health education and access to resources is the key to increase human development.
MEASURING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
- HDI ranks countries on their performance in key areas of development.
- Ranking are based on a score between 0-1. uLife expectancy at birth is the indicator to assess health.
- Adult literacy rate & gross enrolment ratio represents access to knowledge.
- Access to resources is measured in terms of purchasing power(USD).
- Each of three are given weightage of 1/3.
- Closer the score to 1 greater the level of human development.
HDI & HPI
- HDI measures attainments in human development, reflects what has been achieved.
- HDI not a reliable measure doesn’t say about distribution.
- HPI measures the shortfall in human development, non income measure, more revealing than HDI
- Adult illiteracy rate, underweight children, no. of people who don’t have access to water are taken to show shortfall in human development.
- HPI & HDI are two indices to measure human development used by UNDP.
GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
- Bhutan only country in world to proclaim the GNH as measure of country’s happiness.
- Material progress, technological advancement are approached cautiously.
- GNH encourages to think of spiritual, non material and qualitative aspects of development.
- Size of the territory and per capita income are not directly related to human development.
- Relatively poorer nations have been ranked higher than richer neighbourhoods in terms of human development.
- Sri Lanka & Trinidad & Tobago have higher rank than India in HDI
- Norway has highest HDI.
- Nigeria has lowest HDI.
- India has 130th rank in HDI (2018 report)
Countries with high level of development:-
- In countries of high HDI education, healthcare are govt priority.
- Investment, good governance in social sector has lead countries to higher level of HDI.
- Many of the countries have been former imperial powers, social diversity is not very high
Countries with medium levels of human development:-
- Forms the largest group.
- Countries in this group emerged after second world war.
- They are improving HDI. Countries have faced political instability, social uprisings in the past
Countries with low level of development:-
- Include small countries.
- These countries have been going through political turmoil, social instability.
- Famines, civil wars , disease are very common.
- Well thought policies are required to address human development requirements.
- Govt expenditure on social sector, political environment, freedom of people in country are important for determining high or low level of development.
- Countries with low development spend more on defense they have not been able to accelerate economic development.