Development is freedom associated with modernization, leisure,
comfort & affluence.
Eurocentric view of development is partial & one sided view of development in which govt. or individual measure level of development in relation to availability & access to computerization, effective transport communication.
For India development is a mixed bag of opportunities.
Female segment is the worst sufferers & people are pushed to live
Development has direct bearings on deteriorating human
conditions, related to the environmental pollution
THREE PROCESSES OF DECL. CAPAB.
The poor’s are being subjected to three inter related processes of
- Social Capabilities:- due to displacement & weakening social ties.
- Environmental capabilities:- due to pollution
- Personal capabilities:- due to increase in disease incidence &
Present development hasn’t been able to address issues of social
injustice, regional imbalances & environmental degradation .
Human development was taken as a separate issue against
prevalent western views of development.
It is a process of enlarging the range of people’s choices, increasing
their opportunities for education, healthcare, covering the full range
of human choices .
According to human development report 1993 “progressive democratization” & increasing empowerment of people are minimum conditions for human development.
1993 report also mentions that development must be woven around
people, not people around development.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
India is ranked 130 in HDI (UNDP 2018)
India(.64) is grouped under the medium group of human
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR LOW SCORE OF INDIA IN HDI
- Historical factors
- Socio-cultural factors
- Political factors
Planning commission prepare HDR for India takes states & UT’s as
units for analysis
It takes UNDP indicators along with economic attainment, social
empowerment, hygiene & welfare policies.
INDICATORS OF ECO. ATTAINMENTS
GNP & its per capita availability are measures to assess resource
base of a country.
In India per capita income & consumption expenditure has
Proportion of population living BPL is declining.
STATES & POVERTY LINE:
▪ More than 30 % :- Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, MP.
▪ Between 10-20%:- Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra.
▪ Below 10% :- Delhi, Goa, Kerala.
GDP don’t reflect quality of life completely .
Unemployment is one of the reason for high poverty
INDICATORS OF HEALTHY LIFE
Indicators: Life free from illness, long life span .
Measures of healthy & long life:-
▪ Pre & post natal healthcare facilities to reduce IMR & post delivery death.
▪ Old age healthcare
▪ Adequate nutrition
Achievements & Declining female sex ratio
▪ Death rate declined from 25.1/1000 (1951) to 6.5/1000 (2015)
▪ IMR declined from 148/1000 to 37/ 1000
▪ Birth rate declined from 40.8/1000 to 20.8/1000
▪ Life expectancy increased from 32 years to 68 years.
▪ Child sex ratio declined in all states (except Kerala), worst in Haryana & Punjab below 850 female children per thousand male children.
- Toxic & non-biodegradable wastes created many health hazard so government launched SBM in 2014
- Major sources of pollution in urban areas- Municipal waste, industrial effluents
- Major sources of pollution in rural areas- Open defecation
- SBM aims at pollution free environment
- Make India open defecation free & 100 % scientific management of municipal waste
- Construction of toilets for people
- Provide clean drinking water to all , control water-borne diseases
- Supply clean LPG fuel to all rural households to reduce domestic pollution
- Promote the use of non-conventional energy sources like solar energy
INDICATORS OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Development is freedom which is key to human development
Freedom possible only with empowerment & participation of people.
Literacy is access to world of knowledge & freedom.
LITERACY IN INDIA (2011 Census) :-
▪ Overall literacy :- 74.04%
▪ Female literacy :- 65.46 %
▪ State with highest literacy :- Kerala (93.91%)
▪ State with lowest literacy :- Bihar (63.82%)
▪ State with highest female literacy :- Kerala (91.98%)
▪ State with lowest female literacy:- Rajasthan (52.66%)
HDI IN INDIA
Kerala ( 0.79 ) tops in HDI followed by Delhi, Himachal Pradesh
Bihar, Odisha, & Chhattisgarh are at the bottom among 23 major states.
Kerala recorded highest HDI due to its impressive performance in achieving nearly 100 % literacy.
Levels of economic development also impacts HDI,
Economically developed states have higher HDI than other states.
POPULATION, ENVIRONMENT & DEVELOPMENT
Development is complex concept:-
- It was thought to be a substantive concept once achieved will
address all socio-cultural & environmental ills of the society.
- It brought improvement in life quality but increased increased
regional disparities , inequality & deprivation
- Environmental degradation has increased
People’s participation & security were the major issues in HDR 1993
It emphasized on progressive democratization & empowerment .
It recognized role of civil societies in bringing peace & human
Civil societies should work for reduction in military expenditure,
disarmament & reduction in nuclear warheads.
NEO MALTHUSIANS VIEWS
Presented by neo Malthusians, environmentalists.
These thinkers argued to maintain a balance between population &
resources before starting any developmental activity.
Social distribution is more important than availability of resources.
Indian culture & civilization have been sensitive to issues of
population , resource & development.
Gandhi ji also supported the balance & harmony between
population & resources.
According to him industrialization institutionalized loss of morality,
self-reliance, non-violence & environment
REPORTS ON ENVIRONMENT
Club of Rome report :- Limits to growth (1972 )
Schumacher’s book:- Small is beautiful ( 1974 )
Brundtland commission report :- Our common future ( 1987 )
Agenda-21 report of the Rio conference ( 1993 )