Q1. “90 % of the world population lives in about 10% of its land area’
while 10% population resides in 90% of the area’’. Support this statement with examples

• Yes, it is true that 90 % of the world population lives in about 10% of its
land area’ while 10% population resides in 90% of the area
• Following are the factors responsible for uneven population distribution

  1. Cultural factors: Explain it
  2. Physical Factors: Explain it
  3. Economics factors: Explain it

Q2. What is sex ratio? Explain the world pattern of sex ratio with suitable examples
• Ratio between number of men & women in the population is called sex
ratio, it depicts the status of women in a country

  1. The average world sex ratio is 102 males per 100 females, highest is in
    Latvia(85 males per 100 females), lowest is in Qatar (311 males per
    100 females)
  2. Pattern of sex ratio doesn’t show variation in developed regions,
    favourable for women in 139 countries & unfavourable in 72 countries
  3. Asian countries have low sex ratio & China ,India & Pakistan have lower
    sex ratio which indicates poor socio-economic status of women
  4. European countries have high sex ratio , as the females have better
    status also men migrate to different parts of the world

Q3. What is the meaning of density of population ? Examine the four geographical factors which influence the population distribution in the world with examples.
• It refers to the ratio between total population & total land area in a country ,
important measure to analyse population distribution
• Geographical factors: (EXPLAIN THE POINTS)

  1. Soil: support agriculture , high population concentration in S-E Asia due to fertile soil
  2. Landforms: plains provide better living conditions , easy to setup
    infrastructure & agriculture than mountainous regions
  3. Climate: People prefer to live in areas of moderate climate , Asia is densely
    populated due to favourable agricultural climate
  4. Water: People prefer to live in areas with water availability

Q4. What is sex ratio ? Why it is unfavourable to women in some
countries of the world ?Give four reasons

• Definition of Sex ratio
• Reasons for unfavourable sex ratio in some countries

  1. Gender discrimination
  2. Female foeticide & infanticide
  3. Low socio-economic status
  4. Domestic violence

Q5.What is demographic cycle ? Describe three stages of Demographic Transition Theory
• Definition: It represent changes in the population of a region when it moves
from high births & high deaths to low births & low deaths as the region
progresses from rural ,illiterate to urban & literate society
• Three stages

1.First Stage: high fertility & high mortality , slow population growth & low life expectancy , illiterate population engaged in agriculture low technology level

2.Second Stage: Fertility remains high but declines with time but death rate falls due to to improvement in health & sanitation

3. Third Stage: Both fertility & mortality declines , population is stable or grows slowly , population becomes urbanized, literate & level of technology is high

Q6. Describe rural-urban population composition with examples
• Division is based on the occupational structure, density of population &
level of development
• Rural urban population composition is different of developed & developing countries
• In developed countries like Canada females outnumber the males in urban
areas , females settle in urban areas to avail vast job opportunities
• Farming remains a male occupation in developed countries , opposite to
that of developing countries
• In developing countries like India urban areas are male dominated ,
shortage of jobs, housing & lack of security discourage women to migrate
from rural to urban areas

Q7. When does positive population growth takes place? Explain
geographical factors that influence world

• Positive growth takes place when birth rate is more than death rate or
when people from other countries migrate to a country permanently
• Geographical factors:

1. Climate- explain it

2. Landforms- explain it

3. Water- explain it

4. Soils- explain it

Q8. ‘The size of a territory & per capita income are not directly related to human development’ Support with examples
• Introduction – Human Development definition
• Indicators of human development

1.Health indicators : major component of human development , life expectancy at birth is used to assess health

2.Knowledge indicators: important aspect of human development, assessed by adult literacy rate & gross enrolment ratio

3. Standard of life: decent standard of life is also important for human development , access to resources measured in terms of purchasing power (USD) is used as an indicator

*Conclusion: Size of territory & per capita income are important but without health, education & standard of life human development is not possible , countries with small area have done much better than countries with large size

Q9. Define ‘Nomadic Herding’ & Give its four characteristics
• It is a primitive subsistence activity , herders depend on animals for food & shelter, clothing etc.
• Characteristics:

1. Nomadic herders move from one place to other with their livestock for
livelihood , occupy a well identified area as tradition

2. Movement in search of pastures is undertaken either horizontally or

3. Different animals are herd by nomadic herders across the world like Yak in Tibet & Reindeer in Arctic regions

4. At present number of nomads is decreasing due to imposition of political
boundaries & settlement plans by many countries

5. Also known as pastoral nomadism

Q10. What is human development? Explain its four pillars
• Definition of human development
• Four pillars of human development:

1. Equity – availability of equal opportunities to all , (elaborate it

2. Sustainability – continuity in availability of opportunities ( elaborate
it further)

3. Empowerment – Freedom to make choices

4. Productivity – Refers to productivity in terms of human work
(elaborate it further)

Q11. Classify intensive subsistence agriculture into two types. How are they different from each other ? Explain
• It is practiced in densely populated regions of monsoon Asia
• Two types:

1. Intensive subsistence agriculture dominated by wet paddy cultivation
• Rice is dominant crop, land size is small due to high population density
• Use of machines is limited & agricultural operations are done manually

2. Intensive subsistence agriculture dominated by crops other than paddy
• Many parts of Asia can’t grow paddy due to physical factors like climate, relief
• Wheat , Soyabean are grown in N-China & India
• Similar to the first type only difference is that irrigation systems are used in this type

Q12. Explain five factors that influence industrial location in the world

1. Access to Market – explain in about 30-40words

2. Access to Raw materials – explain in about 30-40 words

3. Access to Transport & Communication – explain in 30-40 words

4. Access to labour supply – explain in 30-40 words

5. Access to sources of energy – explain in 30-40 words

Q13. Distinguish between nomadic herding & commercial livestock rearing

1. It is a primitive subsistence activity where herders move from one place to other with their livestock1. It is a organized activity & capital intensive ,practiced on permanent ranches
2. Rely on on animals for food , clothing ,shelter2. Animals produce is scientifically packed & exported to different markets across the world
3. Wide variety of animals are reared3. Only one type of animal is reared
4.It is done over vast horizontal or vertical distances using primitive techniques4. It is practiced over permanent ranches using latest technological equipments & emphasis on breeding & animal health
5. Practised in the areas of extreme climatic conditions like deserts, mountains5. Associated with western culture practiced on large hectares of land , in New Zealand , Australia

Q14. Define ‘ Manufacturing’ . Explain four features of small scale manufacturing
• It is a process of transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher value
• Features of small scale manufacturing:

  1. Distinguished from household industries by techniques & place of production
  2. Uses local raw material , simple power driven machines & semi-skilled labour
  3. Provides employment & raises local purchasing power
  4. Small scale manufacturing develop labour intensive techniques to provide employment in developing countries

Q15. Differentiate between Co-operative farming & Collective farming

Co-operative farmingCollective farming
1. Takes place when farmers pool resources voluntarily for efficient & profitable farming1. Takes place when there is collective labour & there is social ownership of means of production
2. Co-operative societies help farmers in buying farm inputs in subsidized rates2. All farm inputs are provided by government
3. Farmers have individual ownership of resources3. Farmers apply all of their resources & are allowed to keep a little plot for own use
4. Co-operative societies help farmers to sell products profitably4. In collective farming all of the produce is sold to state at fixed prices
5.Co-operative farming has been successful in many countries like Denmark & is practiced in many parts of the world5. Collective farming was introduced in Soviet Union (Kolkhoz Model) after disintegration of soviet union this system was modified

Q16. Define manufacturing . Classify industries on the basis of size&
explain characteristics of each type
• Definition of manufacturing
• On the basis of size:

1. Cottage manufacturing
i. Smallest manufacturing unit
ii. Local raw material is used
iii. Goods are produced at home with the help of family members by simple tools
iv. Finished goods are used either in the same household or for sale in
local market

2. Small scale industries
i. Distinguished from household industries by techniques & place of
ii. Uses local raw material , simple power driven machines & semiskilled labour
iii. Provides employment & raises local purchasing power
iv. Small scale manufacturing develop labour intensive techniques to
provide employment in developing countries

3. Large scale industries
i. Uses various raw materials & enormous energy
ii. Requires large market for its product
iii. Specialised workers , advanced technology mass production are basic features
iv. These industries are located in many parts of the world like cement
industry & iron & steel industry

Q17. Give five characteristics of plantation agriculture in the world
• Plantation agriculture was introduced by Europeans in their respective colonies
• It is done on large estates or plantations
• Requires large capital investment & scientific methods of cultivation
• Plantation agriculture requires single crop specialization & cheap labour
• Also, it needs a good system of transportation from plantations to the
• Plantation crops: Tea , Coffee, Rubber etc.

Q18. What is tourism ? Explain four factors which attracts tourists in the world
• Tourism is travel undertaken for recreation & entertainment, one of
the largest tertiary activity in terms of employment
• Four factors:

1.Climate- explain it

2.History & Art – explain it

3.Landscape- explain it

4. Culture & Economy – explain it

Q19. Describe any four characteristics of commercial livestock rearing
• Commercial livestock rearing is a system in which animals are reared on vast grasslands with modern scientific methods
• Characteristics:

1. It is organized & capital intensive , practiced on permanent ranches

2.It is a specialized activity only one type of animal is reared

3. Products such as meat, wool etc. are packed scientifically

4. Rearing of animals is done on scientific basis , main emphasis is on breeding, genetic improvement etc.

5. Ranches are divided into parcels to regulate grazing

6. Practised in : USA , New Zealand

Q20. ‘Services are very important aspect of economic development of a
country’ Analyse the statement by explaining five components of service sector

• Service sector is very important for the development of a country’s
economy , related to all kinds of services like education, health & business services
• Service sector provide employment to large number of people
• Major components are:

  1. Wholesale & retail trading services with producers & consumers
  2. Transport & communication like railways, shipping etc.
  3. Business services like advertising , legal services
  4. Banking, Insurance services
  5. Entertainment & Mass media like television , radio, films etc.

Q21. Define Mixed farming & Give its any four characteristics
• It is a type of agriculture in which farmers cultivate crops & rear animals
• Four characteristics:

  1. Practised in developed parts of the world like N-W Europe & Eastern North America
  2. Farms are moderate in size , crops grown are wheat, barley , maize etc.
  3. Crop rotation & inter-cropping are practiced to maintain soil fertility
    manures & fertilisers are also used
  4. Equal emphasis is laid on crop cultivation & animal husbandry to earn more income

Q22. What is medical-tourism? Explain the scope of medical services for foreign patients in India.
• It refers to the combination of medical treatment with international
• Scope of medical services :

  1. In 2005 about 55,00 patients from USA visited India for tourism, India
    has emerged as a leading country in this field
  2. World class hospitals like AIIMS are located in the metropolitan cities of
    India which serve patients from all over the world
  3. Medical tourism brings foreign currency in India
  4. Also brings benefits to developing countries like ours

Q23. Mention any six advantages of Oceanic Routes

  1. No need to construct ocean routes, cost is saved
  2. It is much cheaper than other modes of transport
  3. Also it is less expensive to carry bulky goods through oceanic routes
  4. Oceanic route doesn’t require maintenance only need port facilities
    at both the ends
  5. Oceans are linked with each other & ships/cargoes of various sizes
    can easily travel in all directions
  6. Modern cargo ships are well equipped with refrigerated chambers
    & radars, for trading perishable items

Q24.Explain five characteristics of extensive grain cultivation practiced in world

  1. Practised in interior parts of semi-arid lands of mid-latitudes
  2. The principal crop is wheat, barley, oats are also grown
  3. Farm size is very large around 100 hectares
  4. Highly mechanized all farm operations are done by machines
  5. Farms are mechanized & people engaged in the farms are very less
    thus yield per acre is low but yield per person is high

Q25. Which is the busiest sea route in the world ? Describe its four

• North Atlantic Sea route (Big Trunk Route) is the busiest sea route in the world
• Characteristics:

  1. Connects two industrially developed regions North –Eastern USA &
    North-Western Europe
  2. This route has highly advanced ports & harbour facilities
  3. One-fourth of the world’s foreign trade is done through this route
  4. Foreign trade over this route is greater than that of rest of the world combined

Q26. Give any five characteristics of dairy farming practiced in world

  1. This type of agriculture is most advanced & efficient type of rearing of
    milch animals
  2. Labour intensive as care needs to be taken while feeding & milching also
    capital intensive
  3. Requires huge capital investment , sheds & storage facilities , machines
    add to the cost of dairy farming
  4. Focus on health, cattle breeding & veterinary services
  5. Practised near urban areas which provide market for dairy based
  6. Provides employment throughout the year as there is no off-season

Q27. Give characteristics of Suez Canal

  1. Links Port Said & Port Suez , connects Mediterranean Sea & Red Sea
  2. Reduced the direct sea route distance between Liverpool &
    Colombo as compared to Cape of Good Hope sea route
  3. Opens a new route to Indian ocean for the Europeans
  4. Suez canal has no locks, 100 ships travel daily through this route
  5. Suez canal is 160 km long & 11-15 m deep
  6. The tolls are very high on this route

Q28. Give any five characteristics of economic activities of hunting &
gathering practiced in world

  1. Hunting & Gathering are oldest economic activity known
  2. Gathering is practices in regions with harsh climatic conditions
  3. Involves primitive societies which extract both plants & animals for food,
    shelter & clothing
  4. Early men used arrows, stone tools to hunt animals in limited number
    but now due to excessive hunting many animals have become extinct
  5. Gathering requires small amount of capital & operates at a very low technology

Q29. What is the importance of roads ? Explain any three reasons for the existence of good quality of roads in the developed countries
• Roads are an important part of country’s transport system
• Roads contribute to nation building & development
• Roads offer door-door services
• Most economical mode for short distances
• Reasons for good quality of roads in developed countries:

  1. Developed countries have higher expenditure on the construction &
    maintenance of roads
  2. Developed countries require good quality of roads as they constantly require long distance linking transportation
  3. There is greater intensity & need for speedy movement of vehicular traffic

Q30. What is subsistence agriculture ? Give four characteristics of primitive subsistence agriculture
• Refers to a type of agriculture where farmer & his family consume all of the grown products
• Categorised into primitive subsistence & intensive subsistence agriculture
• Characteristics of primitive subsistence agriculture:

  1. Practised by many tribes in the tropics
  2. Vegetation is cleared by fire & ashes makes the soil fertile
  3. Only primitive tools are used, land size is small
  4. After 2-3 years when soil looses its fertility farmers move to another patch of land for cultivation
  5. Also known as slash & burn agriculture, shifting cultivation, Milpa & Ladang across the world

Q31. What are highways? Explain the significance of highways with examples from different countries
• Highways are metalled roads constructed for unobstructed vehicular movement

1.North America- Highways link cities on Pacific coast with cities on Atlantic coast , Pan American Highway connects countries of South America & North America

2. Europe- Well developed network of highways , face competition from railways & waterways

3.Russia – Highways link important industrial regions , Moscow-Vladivostok
highway is the most important highway

4. China- All major cities are linked with highways

5. India – Highways connect major towns & cities , NH7 is the longest connecting Varanasi to Kanyakumari

6. Africa- In Africa major roads are in South Africa , Cape town is connected with Cairo through highway

Q32. “There is low yield per acre but high yield per person in the interior parts of semi-arid lands of mid-latitudes of the world “ Support this statement with the help of examples
• Commercial grain cultivation takes place in the interior parts of semi-arid
land of mid-latitudes
• Size of farm is very large & very few people are engaged in farms
• All farming operations are mechanized
• Yield per person is high as number of people working are less
• Yield per acre is low due to large farm size, but total yield is very high
• This type of agriculture is practiced in Eurasian Steppes , Prairies of America

Q33. What is the meaning of market gardening & horticulture ? Give its four characteristics’
• Market Gardening & Horticulture specialize in the production of high value crops like vegetables, fruits , flowers for sale in markets
• Features:

  1. It is both labour & capital intensive , emphasis on irrigation ,HYV seeds,
  2. Farms are small in size , located near urban centres with good transport & communication facilities
  3. Regions where farmers specialize in the cultivation of vegetables only is
    known as ‘truck farming’
  4. Practised in developed regions of N-W Europe & N-E USA

Q34. What is the significance of inland waterways? Explain three factors responsible for the development of inland waterways in the world
• Inland waterways consists of river, lakes & canals, important for domestic & international transport & trade
• Many rivers have been modified to make inland waterways
• Significance of Inland waterways is rising day by day due to increase in trade
• Three factors:

  1. Navigability- width & depth of river channel , makes navigation possible
  2. Water flow in a river- Required for continuous movement of ships, boats
  3. Transport & Technology- Important to develop technology for movement
    of heavy & bulky material

Q35. Differentiate between Bilateral & Multilateral Trade. Explain how
ports are helpful in trade

Done between two nationsDone between many countries
Limited to certain commoditiesVarious types of goods & services are traded
Tariff reduction granted for some commodities Title of Most Favorable Nation is granted to some trading partners

Q36. Explain significance of the transport & communication services
available in the world

• Significance of transport services:

  1. Road Transport- explain in 20-30 words
  2. Railways-explain in 20-30 words
  3. Water Transport-explain in 20-30 words
  4. Air Transport-explain in 20-30 words
  5. Pipelines-explain in 20-30 words

• Significance of communication services:

  1. Satellite Communication-explain in 20-30 words
  2. Cyber Space (Internet) – explain in 20-30 words

Q37. Explain any five basis of international trade

1.Difference in national resources : World’s national resources are distributed unevenly across the world due to difference in climate, geology etc. which makes countries to trade with each other

2. Population factors: Size, distribution, density of population affects the
volume & composition of goods traded between two different regions of the world

3. Extent of foreign investment: Developing countries lack in investment for the development of mining & other activities so foreign investors invest & trade the products

4. Transport: At present with the development in transport , trade has
expanded , earlier it was limited to local areas due to poor transport system

5. Stage of Economic Development: Nature of commodities changes with
change in stage of economic development , developing countries export ago products while developed countries export machines & IT products

Q38. Write the advantages & disadvantages of road transport in the world
• Advantages

  1. Most economical means of transport for short distance
  2. It provides door-door services
  3. Construction of roads is easy & cheaper as compared to other means
  4. Best suited for transport of perishable goods
  5. Play a vital role in a nation’s trade & commerce also promote tourism

• Disadvantages

  1. Road transport is not sustainable in all seasons
  2. Maintenance of roads require heavy expenditure
  3. Unmetalled (kuccha)roads become unmotorable during rainy season
  4. Quality varies between developed & developing countries
  5. Often face traffic delays also prone to damage by accidents

Q38. Explain two types of international trade in the world. Examine three possible negative impacts of globalisation along with free trade in the world
• Defintion of International trade
• Two types of international trade with brief explanation
• Negative impacts:

  1. Doesn’t provide equal field for the growth of developing countries
  2. Dumping degrades the market of developing countries
  3. Domestic producers face stiff competition from foreign products

Q39. Which continent has highest road density in the world? Why do traffic congestions occur on road? Give three measures to solve traffic congestion.
• North America has highest road density in the world
• North America has highest number of vehicles than Europe
• Traffic congestion occurs when road network fails to meet the traffic demands
• Traffic peaks & troughs are also common at a particular time of the day
• Measures:

  1. Parking fee should be increased
  2. Improvement should be done in public bus services
  3. Mass Rapid Transit (Metros) should be developed
  4. Expressways should be developed

Q40. What is the role of WTO as an international organization ? Why it is criticized by some countries ? Explain the role of WTO
• WTO was setup on 1 January 1995 , transformed from GATT
• Only global organisation to set rules for trading also solves disputes between members
• Promotes free trade among different countries of the world
• Criticism

  1. Criticised by people who are worried of free trade with globalization
  2. Critics say it is widening gap between developed & developing countries,
    influential nations serve their interests
  3. Developed countries trade in the markets of developing countries but do not open their markets for developing countries
  4. Issues like health , worker’s right .environment have been ignored

Q41. State three characteristics of water transport. Why is traffic less on the cape of good hope route?
• Characteristics:

  1. Doesn’t require route construction, oceans are linked with each other
    provide smooth routes in all directions
  2. Cheaper means of transport as friction of water is less than land & fuel cost is low
  3. Heavy & Bulky cargo can be transported through water at a low cost
    compared to other means of transport

• Reasons for less traffic on Cape of good hope route:

  1. Demand is less due to limited population & low economic development in South America & Africa
  2. Africa & South America have similar resources
  3. Large scale industries are only present in some parts of South America

Q42. Why are ports known as ‘gateways of international trade’? Explain any three characteristics of inland ports
• Ports are called chief gateways of international trade because:

  1. Facilitate movement of cargo & passengers from one country to the other
  2. Ports provide facilities of docking , loading & unloading for cargo
  3. Port authorities make arrangements for navigable channels, tugs & barges

• Characteristics of Inland ports:

  1. Inland ports are located away from the sea coast
  2. Linked to the sea through a river/canal
  3. Accessible to flat bottom ships
  4. Example: Manchester linked with a canal, Kolkata port is on Hugli river

Q43. State the importance of railways as a mode of transport ?Explain any four main features of the railway network in Europe
• Railways cover long distances , ideal for transporting bulky goods
• Railways also serve large number of passengers
• Railways also act as a connecting link between water transport & road transport

Features of Railways in Europe:

  1. Most of the railways in Europe is double/multi tracked
  2. Belgium has highest rail density in Europe (1km of railway for every 6.5 sq. km of area)
  3. In many European nations passenger transport is more important than
    goods transport
  4. Railway density is highest in industrial regions of Europe

Q44.”In modern times international trade is the basis of the world economy” Support this statement with example
• At present international trade is the basis of world economy also related to
foreign policy of nations
• Reasons:

  1. Natural resources are unevenly distributed over the earth surface,
    international trade exist due to this
  2. International trade leads to foreign investment in developing countries
    which is important for development
  3. Helps to raise standard of living of people, by earning foreign exchange
  4. International trade plays an important role in the development of a
    country .

Q45.Which shipping canal links the Atlantic ocean & the Pacific ocean ?Explain any four characteristics
• Panama Canal links the Atlantic ocean & the Pacific ocean
• Characteristics:

  1. Panama canal links Colon (Atlantic ocean) to Panama in (Pacific ocean)
  2. It is 72 km long& involves a deep cutting of 12 km
  3. Shortens the distance between New York & San Francisco by 13,000 km by sea
  4. It has six lock systems & ships cross the different level through these locks
  5. It is vital for the economies of Latin America

Q46. Name the longest trans-continental railway in the world. Give its four features
• Longest trans-continental railway in the world is Trans-Siberian Railway
• Features:

  1. It runs from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok , most important route of Asia
  2. Opens up Asian regions to West European markets
  3. It is the longest (9,332 km) double tracked & electrified trans-continental railway
  4. It runs across Ural mountains, Chita (agro centre) & Irkutsk(fur centre)

Q47. Classify human settlement of the world into two categories Mentionfour characteristics of each category
• Can be classified into:

Rural settlements – closely & directly related to land , people are
engaged in primary activities like agriculture
i. Houses are built far from each other
ii. The main economic activities of inhabitants are engaged in agriculture , fishing & other primary activities
iii. Rural areas support the needs of rural as well as urban population
iv. Social relations are strong & simple

2.Urban Settlements: These are the urban areas & centres of
industries & services , In urban areas of India more than 75% of
male population is involved in non-agricultural activities
i. Have high density of population due to pressure on land
ii. People in urban areas are engaged in secondary, & service sector
iii. Industries provide finished products to urban areas also to rural areas in return of raw materials
iv. Due to large population, houses are closely built
v. Social bonds in urban areas are formal & life is complex

Q48. Describe the journey of development of land transport from the days of humans as carriers & the cableways today.
• Land refers to the movement of goods & services that takes place over land by road , railways or other means
• In Ancient times humans were carriers themselves , people were carried on palanquin
• Later animals were used for transporting goods & services , invention of wheel facilitated land transport
• Invention of steam engine revolutionized transport system , now bulky goods were carried over long distances
• Today the newer developments in land transportation are pipelines, cableways etc.
• The newer developments has made transport more efficient & fast

Q49. Explain any five major environmental problems related to urban
settlements in the developing countries

• Environmental Problems:

  1. Large use of traditional fuels in domestic & industrial sectors pollute the air
  2. Large urban population in developing countries generate large quantity
    of wastes
  3. Improper sewerage system creates unhealthy conditions in urban areas
  4. Huge concrete structures generates a lot of heat , increases the
    temperature of urban areas
  5. Domestic & other wastes are dumped in the roads, creates foul smell

Q50. Which means of transport is extensively used for carrying water,
petroleum , natural gas & other liquids? Describe the network of this means of transport in the world

• Pipelines is the means of transport is extensively used for carrying water,
petroleum , natural gas & other liquids
• Dense network of pipelines in USA like Big Inch
• Pipelines are used to connect oil wells to ports & refineries
• In New Zealand milk is supplied through pipelines from farms to factories
• In Europe oil wells are linked to refineries through pipelines
• Naharkatiya & HVJ are important pipelines in India

Q51. What are rural settlements? What are the two types of rural
settlement in the world? How are they different from each other ? Give three points of distinction

• The settlements which are closely & directly related to land are called
rural settlement & these are dominated by primary activities
• Two types of rural settlements:

Compact SettlementsDispersed settlements
1. Houses are located very close to each other1. Houses are located far apart from each other
2. Develop around river valleys & fertile plains2. Houses are interspersed with fields & these develop along areas having extreme type of climate
3. Communities are closely knit & share common occupations3. Binded by place of worship or market

Q52. Explain the importance of communication services in the world.
• Communication connects the people living in different parts of the world
also facilitate trade
• Optic Fibre Cables (OFC) allows large quantities of data to be transmitted
rapidly & securely
• Satellite communication has widened the connectivity by connecting more
than 100 million countries
• Cyberspace (Internet) is the latest technology for accessing information
over computer networks
• New technologies have connected people & now it is easy to send/receive
messages & information this has made the concept of global village a reality

Q53. Classify the urban settlements on the basis of size ,functions & services available into five categories & explain an important characteristic of each type
• On the basis of size, functions & availability of services urban settlements can be classified into:

1.Town: Specialised in functions like manufacturing & professional services

2. City: Larger than towns & have greater number of economic functions like transport terminals & administrative functions

3. Conurbation: Refers to an urban area resulted from merging of towns & cities , metropolitan cities are conurbations only . Tokyo & Mumbai are example

4. Megalopolis: Refers to megacities with more than 10 million population formed by merging different conurbations , New York was the first to get this status

5. Million City: Cities with more than one million population are called million cities , London was the first to reach the mark in 1800, number is increasing due to expanding population

Q54. “The Rhine waterways is the world’s most heavily used inlandwaterway” .In the light of this statement examine its significance
• Rhine waterways is significant in the following ways:

  1. World’s heavily used waterway , ships & inland vessels exchange their
    cargoes in this route
  2. Huge tonnage moves along this waterway
  3. Rhine river is navigable for 700km from Rotterdam in Netherlands to
    Basel in Switzerland
  4. Rhine flows through a rich coal field & the region has become a
    manufacturing hub
  5. Rhine waterway links major industrial regions of European countries

Q55. Explain any five factors that affect the location of rural settlements of the world

  1. Water Supply: need to explain
  2. Land: need to explain
  3. Upland: need to explain
  4. Building Material: need to explain
  5. Defence: need to explain
  6. Planned settlements: need to explain

(ANY 5 )

Q56. “The Suez & the panama canal are two vital man-made navigation
canals which serve as the gateways of commerce for both Eastern &
Western worlds “ In the light of this statement ,explain economic
significance of these two canals

• Characteristics of Suez Canal: (Any 5 points )
• Characteristics of Panama Canal : (Any 5points)

Q57. Explain any five major problems of the rural settlements in the
developing countries of the world

• Define rural settlements in 2-3 lines
• Problems of rural settlements:

  1. Water Scarcity: Explain in 20-30 words
  2. Improper housing facilities: Explain in 20-30 words
  3. Lack of infrastructure: Explain in 20-30 words
  4. Lack of connectivity : Explain in 20-30 words
  5. Lack of basic facilities: Explain in 20-30 words

Q58. “Trans-Canadian railway line is considered as the economic artery of Canada’’. Support this statement with examples
• Trans-Canadian railway is considered as the economic artery of Canada
• Features:

  1. This is 7,050 km long railway line runs from Halifax to Vancouver
  2. It connects important cities of Canada like Montreal & Ottawa
  3. Connects the Quebec-Montreal industrial region with the wheat belt of
    Prairie region
  4. It was constructed in 1886 links major industrial regions
  5. A loop line from Winnipeg to Thunder Bay connects this rail with an
    important waterway

Q59. Describe any five patterns of rural settlements in the world on the basis of forms & shapes
• Patterns of rural settlements reflect the way the houses are sited in
relation to each other , site of the village & other physical factors influence
the size & shape of the village
• Patterns:

1.Linear Pattern: Houses are located in a straight line along a road, river & canal

2.Rectangular /Cross shape pattern: Found in plain areas , roads are
rectangular & cut each other at right angles

3.Circular Pattern: Develop around lakes, tanks , villages are planned in
such way that centre part remains open to protect animals from wild

4.Star like pattern: several roads converge & houses are built on them

5.Double village: extend on both sides of a river where there is a

6.T-shaped, Y-shaped , Cruciform settlements: t-shaped settlements develop at tri junction of the roads, Y shape settlements are those where two roads converge into one & houses are built .Cruciform settlements develop on cross roads with houses on all four directions
(ANY 5)

Q64. Give information on the growing importance of the Regional Trade Blocs in International trade with special reference to the European Union (EU) and the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
• Regional Trade Blocs have come up in order to encourage trade between
countries with geographical proximity, similarity and complementarities in trading items
• Also to curb restrictions on trade of the developing world.
• Today, 120 regional trade blocs generate 52% of the world trade.
• These trading blocs developed as a response to the failure of the global
organizations to speed up intra-regional trade.


  1. Headquartered at Brussels, Belgium,
  2. EU consists of Austria, France , Belgium etc.
  3. The commodities traded by it include- Agro-products, minerals etc. paper, transport vehicles, optical instruments, clocks, antiques, etc.


  1. Headquarters at Vienna, Austria
  2. Member countries include Saudi Arabia ,Qatar , Iran etc.
  3. Commodity – crude oil.

Q65. ‘‘Gathering and hunting are the primitive economic activities meant for the subsistence of tribal societies, but in modern times gathering is market oriented and has become commercial.’’ Examine the statement. •Gatherers collect valuable plants, leaves, bark and medicinal herbs for
different uses and sell in market.
• The barks are used for making quinine, tannin etc., in different ways; leaves for beverages, drugs, cosmetics, fibers, thatch, fabrics.
• Edible nuts and their oils are also collected.
• Tree trunks for latex, balata, gums and resins are used as raw materials in various industries.

Q66. Study the diagram &answer these questions

  1. Name the country through which this canal passes.
    • Egypt
  2. Name the seas connected by this canal.
    • Mediterranean Sea & Red Sea
  3. Why is this canal considered a gateway of Europe to the IndianOcean ?
    i. It is considered a gateway of Europe to the Indian Ocean as it
    reduces the distance between Europe and Asia;
    ii. Gives direct sea route distance between Liverpool and Colombo
    compared to Cape of Good Hope route.
    iii. It saves time and fuel.
    Identify and name the canal shown in the map.
    Write any four characteristics of this canal.

Q67. Differentiate between Subsistence & Plantation Agriculture

It is done on a small plot of landIt is done on large estates/plantations
Proximity to markets and thus, transportation is not essential.Proximity to markets and good system of transport is very important
One or more crops can be grown on single piece of land.Single crop specialisation is observed.
The produce is just enough for the subsistence of the farmer’s familyThe produce is for gaining profit and is in bulk.
The farmer and his family constitute the labour. Primitive tools are utilized.There is large capital investment and scientific methods are used. Cheap labour is also employed at a large scale.
Practised in the parts of monsoon AsiaBritish established tea plantation in India & Sri Lanka

Q68. Differentiate between mixed farming & dairy farming

1. Equal emphasis is on crop cultivation & animal husbandry1. Special emphasis is on cattle breeding, health care & veterinary services
2.Found in highly developed regions like north western Europe2. Found in Australia & Newzealand
3. Wheat, Barley & root crops are grown3. It is the most advanced & efficient type of rearing of milch animals
4. Mixed farming is characterised by high capital expenditure on farm machinery, building, extensive use of chemical fertilizers, green manure and the skill and expertise of the farmers.4. Dairy farming is highly labour intensive as it involves rigorous care in feeding and milching.
5.There is crop rotation and intercropping that maintain the soil fertility.5. There is no off season during the year like there is in crop cultivation

Q69. What is the meaning of ‘retail trading’ ? Describe any two features each of Rural marketing and Urban marketing centres.
• Retail trading refers to business activity of selling goods directly to the
• Rural Marketing Centres:

  1. Rural marketing centres serve to nearby settlements
  2. Important for making goods & services available to rural people & have
    periodic markets

• Urban Marketing Centres

  1. Located in urban areas have specialized urban services
  2. Professional services are well developed like health & education services

Q70. Study the map & answer these questions (1+1+3)

1.Name the terminal stations of this railway line
• Vancouver on pacific coast & Halifax on atlantic ocean

2.Name the agricultural region through which it passes
• Wheat belt of prairie region

3.Why is this railway line known as the economic artery of Canada
• Write three characteristics of Trans-Canadian railway

Q71. Why do large scale industries choose different locations? Explain any four factors which influence the location of industries.
• Large scale industries choose different locations to maximise profit by
reducing production cost, they are located where the production costs are minimum
• Factors affecting industrial location:

  1. Access to Market
  2. Access to Raw Material
  3. Access to Labour supply
  4. Access to power
  5. Access to transport & communication facilities (EXPLAIN ANY 4)

Q72.Explain five characteristics of high tech industries
• High technology is the latest generation of manufacturing activities
• Intensive research & development is applied in the production
• Professional (white collar workers) make up the share of the workforce, outnumber the blue collar workers
• These are neatly spaced , modern & dispersed
• High tech industries which are regionally concentrated , self sustained
& highly specialized are called technopolies like Silicon Valley

Q73. Explain the trends in population growth of the world with special reference to the help of science & technology
• Population growth refers to change in the number of inhabitants of a region between two points of time
• Trends in population growth:

  1. Population on earth is over billion , it has grown sharply over last centuries
  2. In the early periods population of the world grew slowly
  3. Expanding the world trade during 16th -17th century set the stage for rapid population growth
  4. World population exploded in 18th century after the Industrial revolution
  5. Technological advancement reduced the death rate as the spread of epidemics could be controlled & vaccines were discovered for diseases
  6. Innovation in Science & Technology also helped in lowering the birth rate ,but still death rate is less than birth rate therefore there is a sharp rise in population

Q74. Explain the three components of population change in the world .
Analyse the impacts of population change

  1. Crude birth rate: number of live births per thousand population in a year.
  2. Crude death rate: number of deaths per thousand of population in a year
  3. Migration: Movement of people from one place to another, it is of two types : immigration & emigration


  1. If the population change results in high population growth , it puts pressure on the resources leading to scarcity & other problems
  2. If the population change leads to decline of population, it shows that available resources are not sufficient to sustain the population

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