Q1. Explain ‘Possibilism’ with three examples.
• Humans begin to understand the environment & forces of nature
• With social & cultural development they developed efficient
• Humans moved from a state of necessity to that of freedom
• The human activities created cultural landscape, nature got
• Examples- Sattellites in space, Huge buildings, Oceanic routes

Q2. Define Human Geography & mention its any four fields
• It studies the relationship between the physical & human
environment through mutual interaction with each other

  1. Urban Geography- concerned with urban studies & planning
  2. Political Geography- concerned with political science, sub fields are electoral & military geography
  3. Population Geography- concerned with demography
  4. Settlement Geography- concerned with urban/rural planning

Q3.Explain the concept of Determinism with suitable examples?/‘‘The
primitive communities lived in complete harmony with their natural
environment and as such the humans were naturalised.’’Support the

• The type of interaction between primitive human society & strong
forces of nature , termed as environment determinism
• Due to low technological development , human was naturalized
• Humans were depended & afraid of nature also worshipped it
Examples: Eskimos of tundra adapted to cold climate , lived in igloos &
tribal groups living in forests, practice shifting cultivation

Q4. How is the knowledge of nature important to develop technology?
Explain with examples.

• With the help of technology humans interact with nature
• Technology indicates the level of cultural development of society
• Understanding natural laws is important to develop technology
• Examples: Laws of aerodynamics to develop faster planes, concept of
friction & heat to discover fire

Q5. ‘Nature & humans are inseparable elements ‘ Justify
• Nature & humans are inseparable & should be seen holistically
• With the help of nature only human beings created his own
• Nature is the home to human beings
• Physical & human features are described metaphors using human
• Example: Face of the earth, Eye of storm etc.

Q6.What is the study matter of the study of human geography? Explain any three facts?

  1. Understand the relationship : Human geography studies & understand relationship between physical environment & human world
  2. Social & Economic Variation: Human geography also concerned with study of socio-economic differences between different parts of the world
  3. Spatial distribution: Also studies the spatial distribution of human phenomena
  4. Understand the earth as a home of human beings those elements which have sustained them

Q7. Explain with examples how nature gets humanized
• Humans interact with nature with the help of technology
• Humans were able to develop technology after they developed better understanding of nature
• Understanding of concepts of DNA helped to cure many diseases
• All these technologies help humans to construct dams , nuclear programmes , artificial rain etc.
• Humans moved from a state of necessity to that of freedom, thus
nature gets humanised

Q8. ‘There is mutual interaction between the elements of physical
geography & human geography’ Justify with examples

• Physical geography includes natural environment & human geography
studies inter-relationship between humans & physical environment
• Using technology humans create socio-cultural environment , only
possible when there is interaction between the two
• Houses in villages & cities are made to use the physical environment
in a better way
• From the above points we can say there is mutual interaction
between the elements of physical & human geography

Q9.Explain the concept of Neo-Determinism with examples
• This concept is introduced by Griffith Taylor
• Emphasised Madhyam marg between determinism & possibilism
• Says there is no absolute necessity nor absolute freedom
• Human beings can progress by obeying the laws of nature ,
possibilities can be created within limit
• Overuse of natural resources for development has caused global
warming, ozone depletion
• Example: Traffic lights, red to stop, amber to wait & green to go

Q10. How does the technology loosens the shackles of environment on
humans? Give examples

• Humans interact with nature with the help of technology which
indicate level of cultural development
• In Ancient times humans were greatly influenced by the nature , but
at present humans have started humanizing the nature
• Examples: Discovery of fire with the concepts of heat & friction &
Understanding of DNA to cure many diseases

Q11. What are the traditional large scale industrial regions? Give two
characteristics of them.

• Associated with heavy industries like smelting
• Located near coal fields
• Also called Smokestack industries , most polluting industries • CHARACTERISTICS

  1. Large labour force
  2. Large unemployment & out migration at present

Q12. Explain push & pull factors that influence migration of population How is the mortality rate of a region affected?
• Migration is the movement of people from one place to the other
• Push factors:

  1. Unemployment
  2. Unpleasant climate

• Pull factors

  1. Better job opportunities
  2. Pleasant climate

*Mortality rate is affected by availability of medical facilites & nutritious food

Q13. Explain any three features of underground mining methods in different parts of the world.

  1. It is done when ore lies deep below the earth surface, vertical shafts have to be sunk
  2. Lift ,drills haulage vehicles & other safety measures are required for
  3. the movement of materials & people required
  4. It is risky , poisonous gases, fires etc. lead to accidents

Q14. Give three characteristics of household industries

  1. Are operated by craftsmen ,family members also engaged
  2. It is the smallest manufacturing unit ,local raw materials & simple tools are used
  3. It has low commercial significance , finished goods are used in same household
  4. Examples: Basket weaving & making jute ropes

Q15. Give three characteristics of first stage of ‘Demographic Transition Theory’

  1. High fertility & high mortality, people reproduce more to compensate for the deaths due to epidemics
  2. Majority of population is engaged in agriculture
  3. Population growth is slow, & literacy is also low

Q16. ‘Dairy farming is the most advanced & efficient type of rearing of milch animals in the world’ Anlayse with examples

  1. It is highly capital & labour intensive
  2. Emphasis on cattle breeding, & veterinary services
  3. Storage facilities , milching machines add to the cost
  4. Labour intensive, involves care in feeding & milching
  5. Developed means of transportation, refrigeration used to increase duration of perishable goods

Q17. Explain three characteristics of organizational structure & stratification of modern large scale manufacturing industry.

  • Complex machine technology
  • Vast capital
  • Specialisation & division of labour to produce more goods with less cost
  • Large organisations

Q18.Describe any three characteristics of the last stage of Demographic Transition theory.

  • Both fertility & mortality decline
  • Stable population
  • Urbanised population & literate

Q19.How do secondary activities add value to natural resources ?
Explain with three examples

• By transforming raw materials into valuable products
• Various processes add value to natural products


  1. Forest products like pulp is processed into paper
  2. Cotton boll processed into clothes
  3. Iron ores processed to make machines & tool

Q20.Explain with examples any three geographical factors which
influence population distribution in the world

• Availability of water: places near river valleys are densely populated
• Landforms: fertile plains are highly populated
• Climate: Moderate climates have high concentration of population
(First explain the three factors than write examples accordingly)

Q21. Study the diagram & answer these questions

Q1. Two types of mining are shown in
diagram , identify them & give their
correct names

Q2. State two characteristics of each type
Ans.1 A =Surface mining/open cast mining

B= Underground/shaft mining

Ans2. Charactersitics:
• Surface Mining

  1. Cheapest & easiest way of mining
  2. Low requirement of safety precautions

• Underground mining

  1. Done when ore lies deep below the surface
  2. Lifts, haulage vehicles & safety precautions are required

Q22. Explain the process of mechanization in modern large scale
manufacturing industry in three points

• Mechanisation- using gadgets to complete tasks
• Automation is the advanced stage of mechanization, tasks are
completed without human thinking
• Factories are automatic , machines are designed to think by their own
• Such mechanized industries have spread to many parts of the world

Q23. Classify the world population into two groups on the basis of
residence. How do they differ from each other ?Explain any two points of

Rural Population
• Lives in villages , main occupation is primary activities
• Density of population is low
• Low level of development

Urban population
• Lives in towns & cities , engaged in secondary or tertiary activities
• Population density is very high
• High level of development

Q24. Give three characteristics of foot loose industries

  1. Location is not affected by particular raw material, can be
    established anywhere
  2. Do not require large labour force
  3. Eco-friendly/non-polluting industries
    Example: Computer/Mobile parts industry

Q25. What do you mean by occupational structure? Name the
occupational categories as identified by UN.

• It refers to the distribution of working population in different economic activities

  1. Primary activities
  2. Secondary activities
  3. Tertiary activities
  4. Quaternary activities

Q26. How are technological innovations important aspects of modern
manufacturing industries? Explain three aspects

• Technological innovations are important for quality control,
eliminating waste & reducing pollution

  1. Complex machine technology , for producing high quality goods at
    less time
  2. Requires vast capital , machines with latest technology used in
  3. Specialisation & division of labour is required , more goods
    produced at low costs

Q27. Why is sex ratio unfavourbale to women in the world ? Give three

• Sex ratio provides an information about the women’s status
• In areas where there is gender discrimination it is unfavourable to women
• Practise of female foeticide , infanticide, domestic violence are common practices
• Women’s have lower socio-economic status & males dominate them

Q28. Explain the concept of High tech industry with examples
• It is the latest generation of manufacturing activities
• Intensive research & development is applied &advanced goods are produced
• Examples: Robotics on assembly line , Computer Aided Design (CAD) etc.

Q29. ‘Equity is one of the most important pillars of human
development ‘ Explain any three human values required to give equal
access of opportunities to everybody

• Equity refers to availability of equal opportunities to everyone for quality of life
• Providing equal opportunities without any kind of discrimination of
• Equal opportunities should be available irrespective of gender
• Equal opprotunities without any discrimination of income/class

Q30. Classify the world industries on the basis of ownership into three
groups .State the features of each group

  • Public sector: one feature
  • Private sector: one feature
  • Joint sector: one feature

Q31. ‘Development is a qualitative change which is always value positive’.Support this statement with three suitable arguments

• It is qualitative change , cannot take place without addition in the existing
• Occurs when positive growth takes place

  1. Development refers to value positive qualitative shift , influenced by
    positive qualitative growth
  2. Countries with better economic conditions are more developed , but the
    economic growth should also be followed by aspects of freedom to make choices
  3. Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq described human development as development that
    enlarges people’s choices & improve their lives and make it meaningful

Q32. Give difference between small scale & large scale industries

1. Use  small power driven machines1. Use heavy power driven machines
2. Small capital investment is required2. Huge capital investment is required
3. Provide employment in developing countries3. Plays important role in the development of development countries
4.Uses local raw material4. Uses various raw materials

Q33. Explain the key areas of human development .

  1. Health indicator: measured through life expectancy
  2. Education indicator: measured through gross enrollment ratio &
    adult literacy rate
  3. Access to Resources: Measured through purchasing power (USD)

Q34. Explain three charactersitics of quaternary activities

  1. Centre around research & development , advanced form of services
  2. Involves collection, production & dissemination of information
  3. Can be outsourced , do not depend on natural resources
  4. Specialised knowledge & technical skills are required

Q35. Differentiate between Growth & Development with an example
• Growth refers to quantitative changes , value can be positive,
negative or neutral
• Development refers to qualitative changes , always value positive
• Development occurs when positive growth takes place
• Example: If Population of a city increases from 1 lakh to 10 lakh in a
year this is called growth, but if basic necessities have improved then
it is called development

Q36. Give three characteristics of periodical markets of rural areas in
the world

  1. Are found where there are no regular markets, organized at
    different intervals
  2. These may be weekly, monthly depending on the needs of people
  3. Are held on specific days & move from one place to the other
  4. Provides a good market in the rural areas

Q37. Explain ‘Equity’ & ‘Sustainability’ as the pillars of development
• Equity:

  1. Availability of equal opportunities to everybody
  2. Opportunities should be provided without any kind of discrimination
  3. Providing quality life is the main objective

• Sustainability:

  1. Means continuity in availability of opportunities
  2. Human development is possible when opportunities are available to
    present & future generations
  3. Coming generations should have equal access to resources

Q38. What are the two factors affecting tourism in the world? Explain
each with an example

• Demand: It has increased due to improvement in standard of living &
nature of work creates demand for tourism
• Transport: Development of transport sector increases the demand of
tourism, expansion of rail & air network has increased the number of
• Improvement in infrastructure also affects tourism

Q39. Explain the ‘basic needs approach’ to human development in the

  1. Proposed by International Labour Organisation
  2. Emphasis is laid on basic needs necessary for survival
  3. Six basic needs are: Health, Education, Food, Water , Sanitation, Housing

Q40. Explain any three features of welfare approach to human

• Human beings are beneficiaries of all developmental activities
• Responsibility of govt. to increase levels of human development by
increasing expenditure on welfare (education, health etc.)
• People are not participants but recipients in development

Q41. ‘Outsourcing has resulted in opening up of large number of job
opportunities in several countries’ Analyse with three examples

• Outsourcing refers to coming to those countries where cheap & skilled workers are available
• It has resulted in opening up of many call centres in India, Israel etc. & have created job opportunities
• Migration can also be reduced by outsourcing in these countries
• Examples:

  1. KPO industry include Research & Development , e-learning etc.
  2. BPO industry involves highly skilled workers
  3. Data processing also employ large number of individuals

Q42. Give any three advantages of water transport in the world
• Do not require route construction
• It is cheaper means of transport as fricition of water is less than of land
• In comparison to other means it is cheaper to transport bulky goods over long distances

Q43. How climate of a region attracts tourists ? Explain with examples
from different regions of the world

• Climate of a region affects the demand of tourism, in following ways:

1.People from colder areas visit warm places as tourist
Examples: Mediterranean lands attract tourists due to pleasant climate

2. People from warmer regions prefer colder places
Examples: People of Northern plains visit hill stations in India

3. Climatic region also provide activities like ice skating, sea surfing etc.
Examples: Mountains of Switzerland attracts tourist for skiing

Q44. Give three points of significance of Trans-Siberian railway
• It runs from St Petersburg to Vladivostok, most important in Asia
• Links Asian region with the markets of Western Europe
• Runs across Ural Mountains, Ob & Yenisei river
• Chita (agro centre), Irkutsk (fur centre) located here
• Connecting links to South Europe with important Asian cities

Q45. Explain how stage of economic development & foreign investment
become the basis of international trade?

• International trade refers to the trade between two or more countries for
mutual benefit

1. Stage of Economic Development: In developing countries agro products
are traded for machinery while in developed countries manufactured
goods are traded for raw materials

2. Foreign Investment: Developing countries do not have enough capital for
development of mining, drilling , foreign investment can boost trade ,
foreign investment in services sector of India has expanded international trade

Q46. Define cyberspace & give two advantages of internet
• It is a digital world used as a means to communicate information over
computer networks

  1. Internet provides the services of e-mail, e-commerce etc.
  2. As a modern communication system has made global village a

Q47. What is free trade/trade liberalisation? Give its two advantages
• It refers to the act of opening economies for trading purpose


  1. Makes the economy more open & trading easier by bringing down
    trade barriers
  2. Creates the environment of competition between domestic &
    imported goods

Q48. Why is the Rhine the world’s most heavily used waterway? Give
three reasons

  1. World’s most heavily used waterway , more than 20,00 ocean going
    ships also inland vessels exchange their cargo
  2. Huge tonnage moves along this waterway
  3. Rhine river is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam (Netherlands)
    to Basel (Switzerland)
  4. Connects major industrial regions with North Atlantic sea route

Q49. Why the ports are called chief gateways of international trade?Explain any three reasons
• Chief gateways of international trade are harbours & ports

  1. Ports facilitate the movement of passengers & cargoes
  2. Provide facilities of docking, loading,unloading etc. for cargo
  3. Port authorities provide navigable channels & labour services
  4. Importance of a port is judged by size of cargo & number of ships

Q50. Mention the famous oil pipeline of USA .How are pipelines the
most convenient mode of transport?

• Big Inch , carries petroleum from the oil wells of Gulf of Mexico to the
North-Eastern states

  1. Pipelines are used extensively to transport liquids & gases like petroleum & water
  2. Can carry liquid & gaseous materials over long distances without delays
  3. Directly link producing areas to the consuming areas

Q51. Classify world ports on the basis of location . Explain any two features of such ports

Inland Ports
• Connected to sea through river/canal
• Located away from sea coast
• Example: Manchester, Kolkata

Out Ports
• Serve the parent ports by receiving large ships
• Built away from the actual ports
• Example: Piraeus is the outport of Athens port

Q52. ‘There is no consensus on what exactly defines a village or a town’ Analyse the statement
• It s widely accepted that settlements can be differentiated into rual & urban but there is no consensus on what exactly defines a village or town
• Population size is important criterion but not universal because:

1. Many villages in densely populated countries like India have population
exceeding that of some cities in European countries

2.Large sections of urban population prefer to live in villages even when they work in cities

3.Primary occupation is preferred in village while secondary & tertiary is preferred in cities

4. Also functions differ between rural & urban areas of developing countries & developed countries
(Any 3)

Q53. Explain three aspects of International trade .

1. Volume of Trade:
• Refers to actual tonnage of goods traded
• Measured as the total value goods & services traded

2. Composition of Trade:
• Nature of goods trade has been changed during last century
• At the beginning of 20th century , primary goods were traded largely
• Now, manufactured goods dominate the trade
• Service sector (IT) is rising today

3. Direction of Trade:
• The direction of trade has undergone changes
• Developing countries have started to compete with developed countries
• Nature of good traded has also changed

Q54. Study the diagram & answer the questions

I. Identify & name the pattern of rural settlement
II. In which type of areas we find such patterns
III. Give an important characteristic of this type of pattern
Ans. 1. Circular rural settlement

Ans 2. Found around a lake/tank

Ans 3. Planned in such a way that central part remains open & used
for keeping animals protected from wild animals

Q55. How is the difference in natural resources a basis of international
trade? Explain with three examples

• Distribution of natural resources is uneven due to different physical
factors like :

1.Geological structure: Different geological structure , topographical
differences more agricultural activities in lowland areas

2.Mineral resources: Different minerals are unevenly distributed over
earth & are the basis for industrial development

3. Climate: Influences flora & fauna of a region, ensures diversity in
range of several products like wool production in colder areas

Q56. Study the given diagram & answer the following questions

I. Identify the name of the given rural settlement pattern
II. In which type of areas do we find this settlement
III. Give one important characteristic of this type of settlement
I. Rectangular/cross shape
II. Found in plain areas or wide inter montane valleys
III. Roads are rectangular & cut each other at right angles

Q57. Study the table & answer the questions

I. Name the two continents that have shown lowest growth rate of million
cities as compared to others
II. What is the reason for this growth rate
III. Define ‘Megacity’
I. Europe & Australia
II. Rural areas have job opportunities so people do migrate to urban areas
III. An urban settlement which have more than 10 million population

Q58. Explain with examples any three features of rural settlement of the world .
•Dominated by primary activities , in South Asia people prefer plains to liin
• Concentrated in areas where building material is available , in polar
areas ice blocks are used to construct houses
• Rural settlements are located near sources of water , in India many
rural settlements are setup near rivers
• Also found in areas with fertile lands, suitable for agriculture , In Asia
people choose to live near coastal plains for rice cultivation

Q59. Explain any three factors responsible for the location of rural
settlements in the world?

• Water Supply: Rural settlements are located near sources of water ,
waterbodies provide water for agriculture & fish for food
• Land: Rural people prefer to live in fertile lands , land provide base for
agriculture , In Asia most of the agriculture is done on fertile lands
• Building Material: Rural settlements are located where there is
availability of wood, stone etc.,Eskimos use ice blocks to contruct igloos

Q60. Explain with example the population criteria used by countries to
define an area as urban

Population criteria is the most important to differentiate between rural
& urban but there is no universal standard
• In Columbia an area with 1500 population is defined as urban
• In India population of 5000 is required for an urban area
• In Japan 30,000 population is required for the designation of urban area

Q61. Define outsourcing . What type of activities are outsourced
• Outsourcing is giving work to an outside agency to improve efficiency and reduce costs.
• When outsourcing involves transferring work to overseas locations, it is
described by the term off-shoring.

The following activities are outsourced:

  1. Information technology
  2. Human resources
  3. Customer support
  4. Call center services
  5. Manufacturing & Engineering

Q62.Define quinary activities . Give its features & importance
• Services that focus on the creation, re-arrangement and
interpretation of new and existing ideas; data interpretation and the
use and evaluation of new technology.
• Features:

  1. These are called gold collar workers
  2. They are special and highly paid skills of senior business executives,
    govt. officials, research scientists, financial and legal consultants.
  3. Their importance is significant in the structure of advanced

Q63. Study the map & answer the following questions

a). Identify the railway line shown in the map.
• The given railway line is that of Trans-Siberian Railways.

b) Which two oceans are connected by this railway line.
• The two oceans connected by the Trans-Siberian Railways are the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

c) Give any one point of significance of this transport line.
• Since the Siberian part of Russia is agriculturally developed, trade of food grains, sugar, etc. takes place through this route.
• It has also helped in connecting Europe to Asian countries like Mongolia.
(ANY 1 )

Q64. Describe any three characteristics of chain stores in the world.
• Purchase the merchandise most economically
• Employ high skilled specialists in executive tasks
• Have ability to experiment in one store & apply the results to many
other stores

Q65.Explain the meaning of technopolies.Give two examples of technopolies.
• Technopolies refers to the high tech industries which are regionally
concentrated , self sustained & highly specialized
• Examples: Silicon Valley (San Francisco) & Silicon Forest in (Seattle )

Q66. Study the diagram & answer these questions

Q1. Name the railway line shown in the map
• Trans-Canadian Railway

Q2. Name the terminal station of this railway line along atlantic coast
• Halifax

Q3. Why is this railway line known as ‘economic artery’ of the country through which it passes
• It is known as economic artery of Canada as it
connects Quebec Montreal region with the wheat belt of prairies

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